Pharyngitis

The reasons

Kinds

Symptoms of acute pharyngitis

Diagnostics

Treatment of acute pharyngitis

Complications

Prevention

Pharyngitis – inflammatory process of the pharyngeal mucosa, in which the patient has pain and discomfort in the throat.

The reasons

The reason for the development of pharyngitis may be the following factors:

  • exposure to bacteria (streptococci, staphylococci, mycoplasma, chlamydia);
  • exposure to viruses (adenovirus, rhinovirus , parainfluenza, PC-virus);
  • exposure to fungi of the genus Candida;
  • ingress of irritating substances to the pharyngeal mucosa;
  • hit allergens on the pharyngeal mucosa;
  • injuries of the pharyngeal mucosa.

The main role in the development of acute pharyngitis belongs to viral infections.

Predisposing factors for the development of pharyngitis are:

  • the presence of chronic inflammation in the nasopharynx (otitis media, sinusitis, rhinitis, dental caries);
  • mouth breathing during the cold season;
  • living in large metropolitan areas with polluted air;
  • inhalation of irritating substances at work;
  • smoking;
  • alcohol abuse;
  • frequent hypothermia.

Kinds

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Pharyngitis with the flow can be acute and chronic.

Depending on the cause of pharyngitis, they are divided into:

  • bacterial;
  • viral;
  • fungal;
  • allergic;
  • posttraumatic;
  • from the effects of chemical, irritating substances.

Depending on the clinical manifestations, morphological changes on the mucous membranes of the pharynx, the following forms of pharyngitis are distinguished:

  • catarrhal;
  • granular or hypertrophic, in which there is a thickening of the mucous membrane of the pharynx;
  • subatrophic or atrophic, in which there is thinning of the mucous membrane of the pharynx.

Granular and atrophic forms of inflammation of the pharyngeal mucosa are characteristic of chronic pharyngitis.

Symptoms of acute pharyngitis

The clinical manifestations of the acute form depend on the cause of the disease. So, in the viral nature of pharyngitis, in addition to signs of pharyngitis itself, symptoms are often found rhinitis, laryngitis, conjunctivitis.

Pharyngitis begins acutely with signs of intoxication, which includes the following symptoms:

  • temperature rise;
  • general weakness;
  • fast fatiguability;
  • headaches;
  • increased fatigue.

Later, local signs of pharyngitis also appear:

  • sore throat when swallowing;
  • sore throat;
  • discomfort in the throat;
  • dry pharyngeal mucosa.

When viewed from the mucous membranes of the pharynx, the following symptoms can be detected:

  • redness of the posterior pharyngeal wall;
  • grit posterior pharyngeal wall.

There may also be an increase in regional lymph nodes (submandibular, cervical), with their palpation pain occurs.

For fungal pharyngitis is characterized by the presence of whitish raids, while the patient’s temperature can be normal or subfebrile (37 – 37.5 degrees).

If pharyngitis is not treated on time or treated illiterately, then inflammation can spread and arise:

  • tonsillitis
  • tracheitis;
  • bronchitis.

Diagnostics

At detection of signs of a disease, it is necessary to consult a local doctor or otolaryngologist.

The diagnosis is established on the basis of the characteristic complaints of the patient, local symptoms of pharyngitis.

The doctor conducts pharyngoscopy (examination of the pharynx), during which you can see:

  • hyperemia of the posterior pharyngeal wall, palatine arches;
  • grit posterior pharyngeal wall;
  • swelling of the mucous membranes of the pharynx.

To clarify the pharyngitis pathogen, a smear from the pharyngeal mucosa is being studied. This study also identifies drugs to which the pathogen is sensitive.

From other tests carried out:

General blood analysis

  • there may be signs of an inflammatory reaction (an increase in the number of white blood cells, an acceleration of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate);

Immunological studies are conducted to detect antibodies to various infections (if it is impossible to determine the pathogen using a swab from the pharyngeal mucous membranes).

Treatment of acute pharyngitis

The treatment of acute pharyngitis is prescribed by the local doctor or the otolaryngologist.

There are general recommendations for the treatment of acute pharyngitis:

  • heavy drinking;
  • elimination of hot and cold food;
  • exclusion of spicy, irritating foods;
  • regular room ventilation;
  • Daily wet cleaning and moistening of inhaled air.

At a body temperature of 38.5 degrees or more, antipyretic drugs are used:

  • Ibuprofen;
  • Paracetamol;
  • Aspirin;
  • Ibuklin.

The treatment necessarily takes into account the etiology of pharyngitis.

In the viral nature of the disease, antiviral drugs are used, but it is worth noting that at the time of publication of the article (April 2016), the effectiveness of antiviral drugs has not been proven:

  • Arbidol;
  • Kagocel;
  • Ergoferon;
  • Cycloferon;
  • Ingavirin.

Antibiotics are used only with proven bacterial nature of pharyngitis, the following agents are prescribed:

  • Amoxiclav;
  • Flemoxin Solutab;
  • Azithromycin;
  • Clarithromycin;
  • Zinnat;
  • Suprax.

Antibiotic treatment is carried out from 5 to 7 days. Self-medication with antibacterial drugs is unacceptable.

To remove the swelling of the pharyngeal mucosa and allergic nature of pharyngitis antihistamines are prescribed:

  • Tsetrin;
  • Loratadine;
  • Diazolin;
  • Fenistil;
  • Zyrtec.

A good therapeutic effect is achieved when conducting local treatment, it includes:

  • gargle;
  • treatment of the pharynx with various solutions;
  • resorption of pills and lozenges.

Rinse hold the following solutions:

  • Chlorhexidine;
  • Furacilin;
  • Rotokan;
  • Decoction of chamomile, calendula, sage.

For the treatment of pharynx using various sprays and aerosols:

  • Hexoral;
  • Stopangin;
  • Miramistin;
  • Ingalipt;
  • Kameton.

For the resorption using drugs in the form of tablets and lozenges, in addition to the antiseptic effect, they have an analgesic effect:

  • Septolete;
  • Falimint;
  • Dr. Mom;
  • Strepsils.

Inhalations are carried out with the use of essential oils:

  • chlorophyllipt;
  • pine buds;
  • peppermint;
  • eucalyptus.

To do this, use steam inhalers.

Attention! Do not conduct steam inhalation at elevated body temperature.

With a timely start, the duration of treatment is from 7 to 10 days.

Complications

Complications arise when the therapy is not started on time, self-treatment, and the duration of treatment is not followed.

Complications arise from the fact that the infection spreads to nearby organs.

The most common complications are:

  • acute tonsillitis (tonsillitis);
  • otitis;
  • sinusitis;
  • tracheitis;
  • laryngitis;
  • bronchitis.

Prevention

The preventive measures of acute pharyngitis include:

  • nasal breathing outside during the cold season;
  • avoid hypothermia common and local;
  • to give up smoking;
  • increase the body’s defenses;
  • timely treatment of inflammatory diseases of the nasopharynx.

With proper and timely treatment of acute pharyngitis, the disease carries a favorable prognosis.

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