Chronic pharyngitis

The reasons

Kinds

Symptoms of chronic pharyngitis

Diagnostics

Treatment of chronic pharyngitis

Complications

Prevention

Chronic pharyngitis is a disease in which persistent inflammation of the pharyngeal mucosa develops.

Chronic pharyngitis occurs in adults with periods   exacerbations   and remission.

Acute viral infections, chronic physical and mental overstrain, and a decrease in the body’s defenses can provoke an exacerbation of the disease.

The reasons

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There are the following reasons for the development of chronic pharyngitis:

  • frequent respiratory viral infections;
  • undertreated cases of acute pharyngitis;
  • prolonged exposure to irritating substances on the mucous membrane of the pharynx, upper respiratory tract;
  • chronic inflammatory diseases ( sinusitis, tonsillitis, caries teeth, rhinitis);
  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract ( gastroesophageal reflux disease ( GERD ), pancreatitis);
  • conditions after tonsillectomy (removal of the tonsils);
  • alcohol abuse, smoking;
  • violation of nasal breathing (curvature of the nasal septum, polyps and adenoids);
  • use hot, hot foods.

Kinds

There are three clinical forms of the disease in chronic pharyngitis:

  • catarrhal;
  • hypertrophic (granular);
  • atrophic.

The catarrhal form of chronic pharyngitis is the most favorable in the course of the disease. In this case, inflammation of the surface layers of the pharyngeal mucosa develops, characterized by moderate edema.

Hypertrophic form manifests itself in the form of growths of the mucous membrane of the pharynx (nodules, bumps).

Atrophic form is the most unfavorable form of chronic pharyngitis. At the same time, the pharyngeal mucosa becomes thinner and becomes dry. The treatment of this form takes a very long time.

Symptoms of chronic pharyngitis

If an adult has chronic pharyngitis, the following symptoms occur:

  • persistent sore throat;
  • sore throat;
  • foreign body feeling in the throat;
  • pain when swallowing;
  • dry, unproductive frequent cough;
  • presence of bad breath.

During the period of remission of the disease, the patient has only local signs of the disease. For   pharyngitis aggravations characterized by the development of intoxication of the body (fever, weakness, malaise), increased local signs of the disease.

For the catarrhal form is characterized by the presence of more pronounced pain in the throat, which is aggravated after hypothermia, with viral infections, after overwork. When viewed from the mucous visible her hyperemia, swelling.

With the development of an adult hypertrophic or granulosis pharyngitis in the first place are complaints about the sensation of a foreign object in the throat. When granular form can be found random, chaotic growths of the mucous membrane in the form of nodules, elevations. And with a hypertrophic form, a thickening of the mucous membrane is observed without nodule formation.

In the atrophic form of chronic pharyngitis, the patient has mainly complaints about:

  • dry throat;
  • hacking cough;
  • constant discomfort in the throat.

On examination, you can see the thinned mucous membrane of the pharynx, dry mucous membranes, crusts, small hemorrhages.

During exacerbations, there may be symptoms of inflammation of nearby organs ( laryngitis, tracheitis, tonsillitis ).

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of chronic pharyngitis is based on a thorough survey and examination of the patient.

Be sure the doctor conducts pharyngoscopy – examination of the pharyngeal mucosa.

At the same time, he can detect the characteristic signs of any form of chronic pharyngitis.

So, with catarrhal form, you can detect the following changes in the posterior pharyngeal wall:

  • redness;
  • puffiness;
  • small amount of mucus.

The presence of the following changes in the pharyngeal mucosa is characteristic of the hypertrophic form:

  • thickening, swelling;
  • developed venous network (stagnation);
  • in case of a granular hypertrophic form, nodules of red color up to 0.5 cm are also detected.

In the atrophic form, the following changes are found on the pharyngeal mucosa:

  • thinning;
  • dryness;
  • crusts;
  • small hemorrhages;
  • pale pink color.

To determine the causative agent of the disease take a scraping from the mucous membrane of the posterior pharyngeal wall, conduct bacterioscopic examination.

In general, a blood test during the remission of the disease may have no changes, and during an exacerbation, the general signs of inflammation are determined (an increase in leukocytes, ESR).

Treatment of chronic pharyngitis

Treatment of chronic pharyngitis is carried out by an otolaryngologist.

Treatment is carried out in an outpatient setting, hospitalization is not required.

Treatment should be carried out strictly under the supervision of a specialist, and it is necessary to strictly follow all prescribed recommendations.

First of all, it is necessary to eliminate all harmful effects on the pharyngeal mucosa:

  • the exclusion of spicy, salty, hot, cold foods;
  • inhalation of harmful, irritating substances;
  • alcohol exclusion;
  • to give up smoking.

For the entire period of treatment, it is recommended to observe a heavy drinking regime.

It is necessary to maintain the humidity of the inhaled air in the room at a sufficient level (50-70%).

This can be done with the help of special devices – ultrasonic humidifiers, or by folk methods – you can hang wet sheets in the room, place containers with water.

Gargling with the following remedies has an effective therapeutic effect:

  • decoction of chamomile, sage, calendula;
  • Miramistin;
  • Rotokan;
  • Furacilin.

Antihistamines are prescribed to reduce tissue swelling:

  • Diazolin;
  • Tsetrin;
  • Zyrtec;
  • Fenistil;
  • Suprastin.

Treatment of the pharynx is also used:

  • Protargol;
  • Lugol solution.

Local antiseptics are used:

  • Hexoral;
  • Ingalipt;
  • Bioparox;
  • Stopangin.

Antibacterial drugs are accepted only for exacerbations of the inflammatory process with a proven bacterial nature. The following antibacterial agents are mainly used:

  • Amoxiclav;
  • Flemoxin Solutab;
  • Hemomycin;
  • Klacid;
  • Cefixime.

Self-treatment with antibacterial drugs can, on the contrary, lead to the progression of the disease.

In the presence of granular hypertrophic pharyngitis, the following treatments are used:

  • Cauterization of silver;
  • Laser coagulation (laser burning of pellets);
  • Cryotherapy (liquid nitrogen).

Be sure to receive drugs aimed at restoring the microflora of the pharyngeal mucosa:

  • Lizobact;
  • Imudon;
  • IRS-19.

In the treatment of atrophic pharyngitis produce the following methods:

  • removal of crusts from the mucous membrane;
  • lubrication of the mucous membrane of the pharynx sea buckthorn, peach, apricot oil.

Effective use for chronic pharyngitis inhalation oil solutions, for this you can use:

  • Peach oil;
  • olive;
  • rose oil;
  • menthol oil.

Applied and hardware methods of physiotherapy:

  • laser therapy;
  • magnetic therapy;
  • UFO;
  • electrophoresis of drugs;
  • ultrasound therapy.

Complications

Incorrectly or unfairly treated pharyngitis is fraught with the spread of inflammation to neighboring organs with the development of the following diseases:

  • tonsillitis;
  • laryngitis;
  • tracheitis;
  • bronchitis;
  • regional lymphadenitis.

It is also possible the development of systemic inflammatory diseases:

  • glomerulonephritis;
  • myocarditis;
  • rheumatism.

The most serious complication of atrophic chronic pharyngitis is the transition to the malignant form – cancer.

Prevention

To preventive measures include:

  • quitting smoking and alcohol;
  • avoid inhalation of harmful substances;
  • timely and completely treat acute forms of pharyngitis, other inflammatory diseases of the nasopharynx;
  • treat concomitant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • rejection of spicy, hot, cold foods.

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