Acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) – this is the most extensive group of infections transmitted by airborne droplets and causing respiratory manifestations of varying severity: from a mild rhinitis to bronchitis or pneumonia. SARS at least several times in my life every person is sick.
ARVI belongs to a separate group of respiratory infections caused exclusively by viruses, as there is still a fairly large group Colds (acute respiratory diseases) that can be caused by microbial agents – pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microbes.
ARVI is widespread among children and adults, on average, children suffer from three to 10-12 times a year, adults from one to four times a year.
SARS is highly relevant due to the fact that they do not have specific treatment and methods for specific prophylaxis (there is no vaccine against all known ARVI).
In addition, it is more difficult to accurately identify the specific virus that caused the disease in each patient, and therefore a collective term emerged – it implies the similarity of the manifestations and principles of treatment of this group of diseases.
SARS is caused by viruses, which today are known about 250 species. All of them belong to certain groups: rhinoviruses, adenoviruses, coronaviruses, enteroviruses, parvavirusy, paramyxoviruses, influenza viruses, parainfluenza viruses, respiratorno- sentitsialnye viruses, Coxsackieviruses and other respiratory viruses.
Infection occurs by airborne droplets. Particles of the virus are transmitted by coughing, talking, sneezing.
For children, the contact route of infection is also relevant – when kissing adults, using common dishes and using dirty hands.
Predicting to the spread of viruses are season changes due to:
- long-term preservation of viruses in the air due to relatively warm and wet weather,
- temperature fluctuations and supercooling of the body,
- crowded population in enclosed spaces,
- small stay in the fresh air and rare airings,
- weakening the body of a lack of vitamins and monotonous nutrition,
- exacerbations of chronic pathology.
SARS usually proceeds in stages , the period of incubation from the moment of infection to the onset of the first signs is different, ranging from several hours to 3-7 days. During the period of clinical manifestations, all acute respiratory viral infections have similar manifestations of varying severity:
- nasal congestion, runny nose, nasal discharge from scarce to heavy and watery, sneezing and itchy nose,
- sore throat, discomfort, pain when swallowing, red throat,
- cough (dry or wet),
- moderate fever (37.5–38 degrees) to severe (38.5–40 degrees),
- general malaise, refusal to eat, headaches, drowsiness,
- red eyes, burning, tearing,
- digestive disorders with loose stools,
- rarely is the reaction of the lymph nodes in the jaw and neck, in the form of an increase with mild soreness.
Manifestations depend on the specific type of virus, and can vary from a minor runny nose and coughing to pronounced febrile and toxic manifestations. On average, the manifestations last from 2-3 to seven or more days, the febrile period lasts up to 2-3 days.
The main symptom of ARVI is high infectivity for others, whose terms depend on the type of virus. On average, the patient is infectious during the last days of the incubation period and the first 2-3 days of clinical manifestations, gradually the number of viruses decreases and the patient becomes not dangerous in terms of the spread of infection.
Usually, viral infections are treated very superficially, without consulting a doctor, and self-healing. This can lead to the formation of such complications as:
- sharp sinusitis ( inflammation of the sinuses with the addition of purulent infection),
- lowering the infection down the respiratory tract with the formation bronchitis and pneumonia,
- spread of infection to the auditory tube with the formation otitis ,
- the accession of a secondary bacterial infection (for example, the development of sore throats )
- exacerbation of foci of chronic infection in the broncho- pulmonary system, as well as in other organs.
Diagnostics in the acute period is not difficult – the manifestations are typical, sometimes to exclude a purulent infection, a smear from the throat and nose with bac. Additional diagnostic methods for uncomplicated ARVI is not carried out.
If necessary, the diagnosis of complications apply x-rays of the paranasal sinuses of the nose or chest.
Therapists, pediatricians and infectious disease specialists are involved in the treatment. First of all, the basis of therapy is:
- isolation from other children and adults
- bed rest
- abundant fluid intake, nutrition according to appetite (vegetable-milk table),
- airing and moistening of air.
Specific antiviral drugs for acute respiratory viral infections are not developed, for these infections only symptomatic drugs are used. These include:
- antipyretic drugs with fever above 38.5-39 degrees and feeling unwell (lower temperature is usually not knocked down),
- drugs for rhinitis – otrivin , sanorin , pinosol , etc.,
- antiseptic and anti-inflammatory drugs for pharynx ( tantum verde, Hexoral, cameton , etc.)
- antitussives (sinekod, Codelac), expectorants (Tussin syrup plantain), vasospasm sputum means (Ascoril, ACC).
- vitamin C in high dosages, multivitamins.
- You can apply the methods of folk therapy – decoctions of herbs, tea with honey, raspberries, milk with honey.
With ARVI contraindicated:
- immune drugs.
The prognosis for timely and complete treatment is favorable, the disease passes within one to two weeks.