Acute tonsillitis (angina) is an infectious disease, in which there is inflammation of the tonsils.
A person has a lymphoid ring in the pharynx, formed by several tonsils, but mostly palatine tonsils are exposed to angina.
It is still incorrect to call acute tonsillitis angina, because in world practice angina is the term “angina” (“ angina ”). pectoris “).
The following main causes of acute tonsillitis can be distinguished:
The most common causative agent among bacteria is Streptococcus, much less often Staphylococcus, Pneumococcus, atypical bacteria.
Any viral infection of the respiratory tract can lead to the development of tonsillitis.
The following factors contribute to the appearance of the disease:
- inhalation of polluted air at work, or during life in large metropolitan areas;
- hypothermia of the body;
- the presence of foci of chronic infections ( pharyngitis , sinusitis, adenoids, otitis media, caries);
- long-term uncontrolled intake of antibacterial drugs;
- poor nutrition;
- excessive smoking.
The spread of pathogens among the adult population occurs by airborne droplets (during coughing or sneezing), very rarely by contact-household.
When contact-household transfer spread occurs when using common utensils, household items, with non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene.
Acute tonsillitis is divided by clinical manifestations:
- catarrhal (the mildest form of acute tonsillitis);
- follicular (purulent follicles are formed on the tonsils);
- lacunar (pus accumulates in lacunas of tonsils);
- ulcer-membranous (plaque forms on the tonsils, which, if removed, may cause the tonsil to ulcerate).
After infection and until the onset of clinical signs of tonsillitis (incubation period), it can take from several hours to three days.
The clinical symptoms of acute tonsillitis depend on the type of tonsillitis.
Signs of catarrhal acute tonsillitis
So, with the catarrhal form of acute tonsillitis, a shallow lesion of the tonsils develops.
Initially, the patient shows signs of intoxication, but the intoxication syndrome is mild. Intoxication is characterized by the following symptoms:
- temperature rises in the range of 37-38 degrees;
- moderate general weakness;
- slight headache.
It happens and catarrhal tonsillitis without increasing the temperature.
Local symptoms appear a little later:
- tickling and dry throat;
- mild pain when swallowing the throat;
- tonsils swollen;
- hyperemia (redness) of the tonsils.
There are no raids in catarrhal inflammation on the tonsils. Catarrhal tonsillitis is most often caused by viruses, sometimes it can be an early manifestation of other forms.
This type of acute tonsillitis has a favorable and easier course. In addition to the signs of the disease itself, with catarrhal tonsillitis, there may be signs of viral damage to neighboring organs:
- rin it;
After three days, the process goes into decline, or it changes to another, more serious, form of tonsillitis.
Signs of lacunar and follicular tonsillitis (purulent tonsillitis)
Lacunar and follicular tonsillitis are purulent types of tonsillitis, they develop with bacterial infections.
Both types begin with a pronounced intoxication syndrome:
- body temperature with follicular tonsillitis rises to 39 degrees;
- with lacunar tonsillitis, the temperature rises to 40 degrees or more;
- body aches;
- muscle pain;
- intense headaches;
- severe general weakness;
- increased salivation.
Local changes join:
- sore throat intense;
- when swallowing pain can be given in the ear;
- increased submandibular and cervical lymph nodes;
- pain on palpation of the regional lymph nodes;
- swelling of the tonsils;
- hyperemia of tonsils;
- in the follicular form, the tonsils contain purulent follicles — rounded formations up to 5 mm in diameter, white-yellow in color;
- when the lacunar form on the tonsils there are accumulations of pus in the gaps of the tonsils, also white-yellow;
- purulent discharge can cover the entire surface of the tonsils (purulent plaque).
The duration of the clinical manifestations of these two forms is usually up to 7-10 days.
Ulcerative-membranous form of tonsillitis
Ulcerative membranous tonsillitis does not cause disruption of the general condition of the body. The distinguishing point is the presence of grayish raids, when removed, there are ulcerative lesions of the tonsils mucosa.
If signs of acute tonsillitis appear, it is imperative that you contact your local doctor or otolaryngologist.
It is not necessary to engage in self-treatment, it can lead to the development of complications or to the transition of tonsillitis to the chronic form.
The diagnosis is established on the basis of characteristic complaints, anamnesis of the disease, and of course, inspection data.
The doctor conducts pharyngoscopy – examination of the oral cavity and pharynx, which detects local changes.
A smear is taken from the mucous tonsils to determine the causative agent of the disease, and to select drugs for the treatment of the inflammatory process. It is determined to which drugs the pathogen is sensitive.
Be sure that acute tonsillitis is carried out smear from the tonsils to exclude diphtheria .
In general, blood tests can be inflammatory changes – accelerated ESR, leukocytosis.
Treatment of acute tonsillitis should be strictly under the supervision of a physician.
There are general recommendations during treatment:
- isolation of the patient in a separate room;
- regular room ventilation;
- wet room cleaning daily;
- the allocation of separate dishes for the patient;
- heavy drinking;
- elimination of too hot products;
- food should be warm, puree;
- You can not eat spicy, acidic foods (this further irritates the throat mucosa).
Antipyretic drugs should be taken at a temperature of 38.5 degrees or more. The following drugs are prescribed:
Be sure to conduct etiotropic therapy (aimed at the causative agent).
Antiviral drugs are used in the viral etiology of acute tonsillitis, however, there is still intense debate in the scientific community about the effectiveness of such drugs. Opponents of antiviral therapy rightly argue that its action has little effect. The following antiviral drugs are currently the most popular:
Antibiotics for acute tonsillitis
Antibacterial drugs must be taken for purulent (bacterial) forms of tonsillitis. Antibiotics are prescribed with a wide range of antibacterial action:
- Penicillins (Amoxiclav, Flemoklav, Augmentin );
- Macrolides (Hemomycin, Azithromycin, Klacid );
- Cephalosporins (Cefixime, Zinnat, Ceftriaxone ).
Dosage, frequency and duration of administration are determined only by the attending physician.
Usually the course of antibacterial treatment is about ten days, but not less than seven.
Antihistamines are used to relieve swelling of the tonsils:
Local therapy for acute tonsillitis is a must.
- irrigation of tonsils with sprays;
- lozenges, pills.
For gargling use:
- hydrogen peroxide;
- soda solution;
- sea salt;
- infusions of herbs.
Rinsing can be carried out every 1.5-2 hours, alternating several means.
After the procedure, do not drink for 30 minutes.
Irrigation of mucous tonsils is carried out:
Tablets for sucking and lozenges have not only anti-inflammatory effect, but also analgesic:
- Dr. Mom;
Therapy of acute tonsillitis should be comprehensive, then recovery occurs much faster.
Be sure to adhere to the course of treatment.
Removal of tonsils in acute tonsillitis is not performed. It can be only if the patient has a complication of acute tonsillitis – paratonsillar edema or difficulty breathing due to the large size of the tonsils.
But for surgical treatment there are also contraindications:
- severe concomitant diseases;
- blood disorders with coagulation disorders;
- active tuberculosis.
Complications of acute tonsillitis are divided into local and general.
Local complications include:
- paratonsillar abscess;
- neck phlegmon;
Common complications include:
- rheumatic lesion of the heart, joints;
- glomerulonephritis (inflammation of the kidneys);
- meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain);
- infectious-toxic shock (intoxication of the waste products of microorganisms);
- sepsis (getting bacteria into the bloodstream and spreading throughout the body).
To prevent the development of complications, timely treatment of acute tonsillitis is necessary.
Prevention of acute tonsillitis includes:
- personal hygiene.
- increase the body’s defenses.
- avoid hypothermia.
- balanced diet.
- treatment of chronic diseases of other organs (otitis, sinusitis, caries, pharyngitis).
- to give up smoking.
- refusal of alcohol.
The prognosis for timely treatment and in compliance with all the recommendations of the otolaryngologist is favorable.