Flat feet – a pathological flattening of the foot, which leads to a violation of its depreciation function, to painful changes in the spine and skeleton as a whole.
In case of flat-footedness, the structure of the normal arch of the foot is rather pronounced or almost completely changed, both longitudinal (along the inner edge of the foot) and transverse along the base of the toes.
As a complication, spinal pain, arthritis and arthrosis of the knee and hip joints occur.
Depending on which arch of the foot is involved in the deformation, the following are distinguished:
- longitudinal flatfoot – flattening of the longitudinal arch of the foot, which is formed on its inner part. With longitudinal flatfoot, shoes are wrinkled inside.
- transverse flatfoot – the formation of a plane in the area of the first phalanges of the fingers because of which the shoe becomes narrow in the toe.
- combined or mixed, with the foot increasing in width and length, the shoe is deformed in two directions.
Flatfoot can also be congenital in nature, as a variant of malformation, it is usually severe and rarely occurs, and acquired during life.
Flatfoot is found in people with sedentary work and with insufficient loads on the legs and feet, as well as in people who are engaged in hard physical labor and have to spend a long time on their feet. This is due to both the deficit and the excess load on the foot. In this case, the muscles and ligaments or not enough exercise, or trite tired and stretched.
Also, flat feet are formed due to rickets , transferred in childhood and osteoporosis in adulthood, due to injuries of the foot and ankle, ligaments and joints, due to lesions of the nervous system in the area of conducting nerves with the formation of hyper- and hypotonia in certain muscle groups.
Hereditary factors and defects of the connective tissue, overweight, lack of fitness and hypodynamia, wearing the wrong shoes, heels, pregnancy, occupational hazards predispose to flat feet.
Symptoms of flatfoot for a long time leave unattended, writing them off for fatigue or manifestations of other diseases.
It can be:
- tired legs when standing and walking,
- pain in the foot, especially after physical exertion and weight lifting,
- tiredness and pain in the legs by the end of the day,
- heaviness in the legs, “lead feet”,
- cramps and swelling in the ankles and shins,
- the impossibility of wearing heels,
- leg resizing,
- problems with choosing comfortable shoes,
- treading the heel inside,
- inconvenience when walking.
In advanced cases, when walking, the area of the sacrum and lower back hurts, headaches can occur, walking long distances is painful and painful.
With longitudinal flatfoot manifestations are as follows:
- very tired legs,
- pain when pressing on the middle of the foot or sole,
- swelling of the rear foot,
- problem with the selection of shoes, the constant stumble on the heels,
- pain in the feet and lower back,
- deformation of the shoe inside, splaying of the heel.
With transverse flatfoot reveal:
- violation of the formation of the transverse arch, stretching the toe of a shoe,
- deformity of the toes, especially large,
- corns on the sole in the pads,
- hammer-shaped fingers.
In case of marked flatfoot, it is enough for the doctor to look at the foot and shoes of the patient.
Additionally, plantography is carried out with measurement of the angle of flatfoot and severity of violations, as well as pomomery. If necessary, conduct an x-ray of the foot and ankle in several projections.
In the treatment of longitudinal and transverse flatfoot there are differences – with transverse conservative therapy can be effective only in the initial stage.
- weight correction
- finding the right shoes
- reduction of loads on the legs,
- wearing special orthopedic rollers and pads.
With the progression of transverse flat-footedness and its transition to 2-3 degrees with severe deformity of the fingers, surgical correction is necessary: resection of protruding bone sections on the first finger, joint repair, and tendon transplantation are performed. But these operations only eliminate the consequences, but do not treat the causes of flat-footedness – problems of muscles and ligaments.
After surgery, life-long wearing of special shoes with special instep supports or insoles is necessary.
In the treatment of longitudinal flatfoot used
- gait correction,
- walking for the maximum amount of time barefoot on pebbles or sand, massage mats,
- applicable regular unloading of the muscles of the foot, periodically rolling on the outer edge of the foot.
With longitudinal flatfoot effective massages, physiotherapy, physiotherapy. In the stage of pronounced violations it is necessary to change working conditions with a decrease in the static load on the legs and feet, and a decrease in body weight.
When pronounced flat foot special orthopedic insoles and individually sewn shoes are used. Surgical treatment is indicated only in very severe and neglected cases.
With timely diagnosis, you can correct flat feet for a few months, but wearing a special shoe can be life-long. With progression and severe forms, the prognosis is poor – disability can form.