Lumbodynia is a collective term describing the occurrence of back pain. In this case, the causes of pain can be both vertebral and non-spinal origin.
Many doctors believe that back pain is a kind of retribution for the possibility of walking in an upright position and ignoring the advice of doctors about maintaining correct posture and training the back muscles.
Also, pain in the spine is a result of the fact that a person exceeds the permissible load for himself – he lifts weights, moves objects of large mass, gains too much weight, moves little. Back pains are characteristic of people over 30–40 years old, although they can also occur in adolescence and even childhood, usually bearing a traumatic or non-spinal character.
The causes of lumbodynia can be divided into two large groups: back pain, which is associated with the spine ( vertebral ), back pain, and other causes.
Vertebral factors of lumbodynia are pains that are caused by:
- spinal osteochondrosis,
- scoliosis of the spine
- dystrophic changes of the vertebrae, intervertebral discs,
- degenerative changes in the ligaments and muscles,
- arthrosis of intervertebral joints,
- hernias and protrusions of intervertebral discs,
- muscle and fascial syndrome
- instability of the vertebral motor segment,
- spinal stenosis.
As a result, nerve root compression occurs with the formation of symptoms.
Provoked Vertebrogenic lumbodynia in a waist excessive exercise, heavy lifting, sudden clumsiness, prolonged static loads, hypothermia waist and body.
They are usually associated with osteoporosis , which causes bone fragility, back injuries, diseases of the kidneys, genital organs in women and men, diseases of the intestines and blood vessels, oncology, inflammatory, infectious diseases ( herpes zoster , myositis).
Provocative for lumbodynia are eating disorders with obesity, hypodynamia, sedentary work, stress and chronic lack of sleep, wearing tight shoes, flat feet, bruises of the legs.
According to the duration of the flow and features distinguish:
- acute and intense pain (backache or lumbago ),
- prolonged pain in the sacrum and lower back – lumbodynia,
- back pain with irradiation in the leg – lumboischialgia.
Usually, the pain occurs immediately after an injury or weight lifting, although it may occur after a couple of days. The main manifestations of lumbodynia are pains that:
- prevail on the one hand
- may increase with stooping, prolonged standing or sitting,
- patients take a lying or forced position, it usually helps lying on a healthy side, or on a patient, it all depends on the reason,
- it is difficult to unbend from the bent position, to facilitate the hand reflex is placed on the lower back to create a lever,
- it is difficult to perform actions in a static position with a slight tilt (washing, ironing, washing) – there are sharp pains,
- because of the pain, a change of position often occurs, especially sitting on a chair – the loin quickly gets tired,
- the range of movements is sharply limited, especially bends forward and sideways,
- pains can be triggered by familiar things — coughing, sneezing, straining , becoming permanent,
- in the area of pain, there is a protective muscle spasm and tissue tightening with limited mobility,
- the peak of pain falls on 4-5 days, then it begins to subside, with the observance of bed rest it becomes easier because of the relaxation of the muscles.
In the event of a hernia , sensitivity disorders and a decrease in reflexes on one or both legs, motor disturbances, a feeling of numbness or coldness of the legs may join .
The basis for the diagnosis of lumbodynia are the patient’s complaints, as well as a detailed inquiry about the time of pain and its nature.
A detailed examination of the lumbar region with probing of the vertebral zone, the muscular system and the sacral area in the projection of the nerve roots. In order to avoid extravertebral problems, the following is carried out
- complete blood and urine test, biochemical blood test, blood for antibodies to infections,
- x-ray of the lumbosacral spine,
- MRI or CT of the spine in the lumbar region in order to ascertain anatomical defects and the state of the intervertebral discs,
- Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity and genital organs ,
- consultations of additional specialists (therapist, infectious diseases specialist, gynecologist or urologist).
Depending on the cause, therapists, neurologists or orthopedists are involved in the treatment of lumbodynia . First of all, it is necessary to relieve pain syndrome with
- manual techniques
- analgesics and anti – inflammatory drugs ( ketorol , nurofen, diclofenac orally and topically in ointments and gels),
- nerve blockade
- transcutaneous electrostimulation,
- antispasmodics in order to relax the muscles and relieve spinal compression.
As the pain subsides, therapeutic gymnastics, osteopathic techniques, massage and other methods are used.
In the treatment of lumbodynia, in parallel with the main therapy, there is a sharp limitation of physical labor, unloading of the spine, weight lifting and bending are prohibited.
In the case of a chronic process, the treatment will be long and complex – all the methods of therapy discussed previously in combination with the wearing of special orthopedic structures, simulators and methods of physical rehabilitation are used.
The prognosis for lumbalgia depends on the causes of the pain, the prognosis is favorable in case of an acute process and correct treatment; in the case of organic lesions, injuries and disorders of the spinal column, the prognosis is poor. Damage may progress.