Deforming arthrosis ( osteoarthritis) is a progressive pathology that leads to degeneration and degeneration of the articular surfaces and damage to the cartilage, up to its complete destruction in the area of the joint.
Usually, deforming arthrosis is detected in old and old age, with the presence of concomitant factors and diseases, often detected during examinations, but does not manifest itself clinically.
Deforming arthrosis is the most common and common pathology of the joints. It is found in 70% of all joint diseases.
The exact cause of deforming arthrosis has not yet been elucidated, but several factors have been identified that significantly increase the likelihood of its development. First of all, it is the general aging of the body and dystrophic phenomena in the tissues, changes in cartilage and articular bags.
Factors affecting the development of osteoarthritis can be divided into:
- external – these include overloading of the joints (for example, due to weight lifting), permanent injuries, professional influences, hypothermia of the joints,
- domestic – is the influence of heredity from the overstretched ligaments and joint laxity, ovarian dysfunction and menopausal changes in women, vascular accident, impaired blood circulation in the tissues of cartilage, obesity.
Arthrosis deformans, as one of the symptoms can be alcoholism or myxoedema, acromegaly or treatment with hormones, with congenital dislocation of the hip, syndrome Marfan (an inherited disease characterized by excessive mobility of joints and elongation of long bones). joint stiffness)
In the development of deforming arthrosis, there are a number of consistent sequential stages, replacing each other:
- decrease in water content of cartilage, which leads to its thinning and drying,
- formation of defects and cracks in the cartilage,
- destruction of cartilage with a simultaneous sharp narrowing of the articular space,
- the disappearance of cartilage from the bony edges,
- compensatory sealing of the ends of the bones, which were left without a cartilage surface,
- violation of the joints with dislocations, fractures and impaired functioning of the limbs.
First of all, the main manifestation of deforming arthrosis is
- pain inside the joint, worse after exercise or at night,
- affected individual joints,
- affected joints are not symmetrical,
- while there are no common manifestations of joint damage,
- no fever
- no strong red joints
- no change in analyzes.
The process often occurs in the ankle, knee, hip or interphalangeal joint.
If the disease progresses to the degree of destruction of cartilage, a painful blockade of the joint occurs, while walking, severe pain appears that prevents the legs from moving and causes them to stop. This occurs due to the ingress of cartilage pieces or small bone fragments (articular “mice”) into the joint cavity.
In the area of the joints on the phalanges nodular, very hard formations occur, while the joints are not severely deformed, the muscles do not undergo atrophy, there is no ankylosis (immobility of the joint).
When moving, a crunch is heard inside the joints due to the friction of uneven surfaces against each other.
Because of the pain and limited mobility, contractures (muscle contractions) can form, which shorten the legs or arms.
Deforming arthrosis in its manifestations is similar to various forms of arthritis, first of all it must be distinguished from rheumatoid arthritis .
Typical criteria for the diagnosis of deforming arthrosis does not exist, it can be outwardly recognized only by nodules on the phalanges of the fingers. Suspected osteoarthritis occurs when:
- typical joint damage,
- long development of the disease for many years
- old age of the patient.
The basis of the diagnosis is radiological data arising before the period of clinical manifestations and pain syndrome.
There is a narrowing of the joint space, a change with flattening and deformation of the surfaces of the joint, instability in the joint with dislocations and subluxations, visible marginal growths of bone, osteosclerosis (excessive increase in bone density).
As the process progresses, bone spikes and bumps are revealed, the joint space can become wedge-shaped.
Complements the study of arthroscopy, blood test with no signs of inflammation.
A study of periarticular fluid is necessary.
The treatment involved trauma and orthopedists.
Methods of treatment of deforming arthrosis depend on the degree of involvement in the process of the joints, as well as on the duration of the lesion and the presence of pain.
First of all, apply conservative therapy.
- reduction of stress on the joints
- weight loss,
- use of metabolites – aloe, gumizol or vitreous intramuscularly courses,
- Cartilage restoration stimulants are used – arteparon, hondroksid, rumalon, mucatrin injections intramuscularly.
Complements the treatment
- use of quinolone drugs ( ofloxacin ),
- anti-inflammatory therapy ( diclogen , ibuprofen, indomethacin ).
If there is inflammation in the joint, a course of hormones is indicated – hydrocortisone inside the joint.
Apply a complex of massages, physiotherapy effects, mud therapy, thermal effects. Useful spa treatment.
In advanced cases, surgical treatment – joint replacement with arthroplasty helps. Further shown is the unloading of the joint, weight loss, walking with the support of a cane or crutches, physical therapy.
Deforming arthrosis without the necessary treatment has a slow, but steadily progressive course. It leads to disability and significant dysfunction of the joints, movement disorders. Therefore, when the first signs of osteoarthrosis occur, active therapy is indicated, which lasts for 1-2 months.