Types and causes of hypotension


Hypotension (arterial hypotension) – lowering blood pressure.

What pressure is considered normal

It is usually considered that the lower bounds of the blood pressure norm with good health and full-fledged performance:  

  • 100/60 mm Hg in men
  • 95/60 mm Hg among women

However, in some categories of people, such figures and even lower ones are considered a variant of the norm. These include professional athletes, people living in the highlands. This is physiological hypotension. Anxiety under reduced pressure is worth beating when there is a clear symptom. Sometimes hypotension is a life-threatening condition in which emergency measures are needed in connection with depletion of the blood supply to vital organs.

Types and causes of hypotension

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Low blood pressure can occur acutely or be chronic.

Acute hypotension

Acute hypotension is extremely life-threatening. In medical language, this type of hypotension is called shock or collapse. In this case, the blood supply to the vital organs (brain, heart, kidneys, lungs) is sharply reduced, as a result of which their functions are sharply reduced. 

Causes of acute hypotension:

  • bleeding;
  • severe vomiting, diarrhea;  
  • reduction of cardiac output ( myocardial infarction and its complications, primarily cardiogenic shock, life-threatening arrhythmias – ventricular fibrillation, paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia), post-infarction cardiosclerosis , cardiomyopathy , heart disease;    
  • heart tamponade;
  • stratifying aortic aneurysm; 
  • spontaneous pneumothorax; 
  • Pulmonary embolism (pulmonary embolism) – it must be excluded one of the first in the sudden development of a syncopal episode with arterial hypotension;
  • anaphylaxis;
  • bacterial (infectious) shock;
  • severe intoxication (alcohol, drugs, drugs, poisons, etc.)  
  • abrupt cancellation of glucocorticosteroids (prednisone, for example);  
  • drug overdose: nitrates, anesthetics, antihypertensive drugs, antiarrhythmic drugs, barbiturates, phenothiazine derivatives, TAI, diuretic, etc; 
  • acute pancreatitis, thrombosis of mesenteric vessels, intestinal obstruction;   
  • rapid removal of exudate or transudate during laparocentesis or pleural puncture.

Chronic hypotension

Chronic hypotension has less pronounced symptoms and does not cause a person special trouble except for reduced performance, fatigue and a tendency to fainting.

In most cases, it affects young people, but today doctors pay more attention to old age with low blood pressure, because they have hypotension can lead to ischemic stroke.

The causes of chronic hypotension can be:

  • Different types of arrhythmias (atrial fibrillation, sick sinus syndrome);  
  • Neurocirculatory dystonia (especially in the young); 
  • Fever;
  • Severe varicose veins of the lower extremities;  
  • Long bed rest;
  • Pain syndrome, dumping syndrome (manifested primarily arterial hypotension after a meal);
  • Alcoholism;
  • Diabetes mellitus; 
  • Adrenal insufficiency ( amyloidosis , tuberculosis);
  • Neurological diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, disseminated sclerosis, syringomyelia, spinal troughs, peripheral neuropathies, etc.).


The treatment of hypotension in most cases is symptomatic against the background of purposeful complex treatment of the main pathological process.

General recommendations for the treatment of hypotension

  • It is necessary to limit alcohol intake, as well as to avoid prolonged exposure to elevated temperature (since dilation of skin vessels contributes to lower blood pressure).
  • It is necessary to cancel all drugs that can cause hypotension.
  • Rational organization of work and rest, night sleep at least 10 hours, full and varied 4-fold food.
  • Sleep preferably with a raised foot end of the bed.

Lifestyle with reduced pressure

  • It is necessary to increase the amount of physical exertion (fast walking, running, swimming), preferably in the open air, in the park or outside the city. Classes should be easily tolerated by a person and be coaching, not exhausting.
  • Meals should be made as balanced as possible. Every day there are fruits, vegetables. Include in the diet of fish fatty varieties, meat. Meals should be fractional (there are small portions that fit in the palm of your hand, every 2-3 hours).
  • Sanatorium treatment (climatotherapy, balneotherapy, sea bathing, massage, exercise therapy) will be useful.

Low Pressure Drug Therapy

Toning drugs for hypotension, usually 2 p. / Day in the morning and afternoon (but not in the evening!):

  • tincture of lemongrass, 20-30 drops before meals,
  • tincture of ginseng 15-25 drops,
  • Eleutherococcus Liquid Extract,
  • Levzey extract liquid,
  • tincture zamanihi,
  • Aralia tincture – 15–30 drops per reception.

Caffeine 0.05 g by mouth 2–3 p. / Day.

Important! It should be remembered about the side effects of caffeine, first of all, about the occurrence of various arrhythmias on the background of its administration. 

Since 2006, in the Russian practice, they began to use drugs based on midodrin , which increases blood pressure without exerting an exciting effect on the central nervous system. 

Medications should be taken only after consulting with a specialist due to the presence of contraindications.

Treatment of acute hypotension

Acute hypotension requires emergency hospitalization. Treatment is often carried out in intensive care units or the intensive care unit. Therapy of the underlying disease is carried out and, if necessary, the circulating blood volume is filled . 

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