Cystitis

Kinds

The reasons

Symptoms of cystitis in women

Diagnostics

Treatment of cystitis in women

Consequences and prognosis

Prevention of cystitis

Cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder, which is accompanied by urinary disorders. Usually, cystitis affects the mucous or inner layer of the bladder, and it is also possible that the muscle and submucosa are involved in the process.

The disease is more common in women due to the peculiarities of the anatomical structure of their urinary system.

With improper treatment, cystitis tends to become chronic.

Kinds

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Inflammation of the bladder is classified according to several criteria:

  • the nature of the inflammatory process distinguishes acute and chronic cystitis;
  • by origin, cystitis is divided into primary and secondary, with the latter occurring against the background of existing bladder problems (stones, diverticula, etc.);
  • by etiological factor, infectious (bacterial) caused by pathological flora and non-infectious (radiation, allergic, drug, etc.) cystitis are isolated;
  • infectious cystitis is classified as specific, caused by pathological microorganisms: gonococci, chlamydia, E. coli and others, and non-specific inflammation of the bladder, caused by conditionally pathogenic flora;
  • Considering the morphological changes in the bladder, catarrhal, ulcerative, phlegmonous, gangrenous and other types of cystitis are distinguished.

The reasons

The anatomical features of the female urogenital sphere cause a higher percentage of cystitis in women than in men.

First, it is associated with a short, straight and wide urethra, through which pathogens can easily penetrate into the bladder. Secondly, the urethra is dangerously close to objects such as the rectum and vagina, which are densely populated by opportunistic bacteria that can cause bladder inflammation.

The cause of cystitis is usually infectious agents. But there are a number of predisposing factors for the occurrence of this disease:

  • hypothermia, especially the lower half of the body (just wet the legs once);
  • work associated with permanent sitting (leads to stagnation of blood in the pelvis);
  • constipation (especially frequent and prolonged);
  • poor nutrition (consuming large quantities of salty and spicy foods, alcohol);
  • self-treatment of sexually transmitted infections;
  • chronic foci of infection in the body;
  • weakening the body’s defenses (constant stress, lack of sleep, poor quality and irregular nutrition);
  • wearing tight linen;
  • violation of personal hygiene;
  • the onset of sexual activity or a change of partner;
  • pregnancy (hormonal changes, fetal pressure on the bladder, leading to stagnant urine);
  • advanced age and multiple birth (associated with bladder prolapse).

Symptoms of cystitis in women

An acute inflammation of the bladder begins suddenly and always after the action of a risk factor.

Usually, the disease manifests itself acutely: with a sharp rise in temperature from 37.5 degrees and above. Fever is accompanied by weakness, increased fatigue and decreased vitality. The effects of intoxication are also possible: nausea, loss or lack of appetite. There are acute or (rarely) aching pain in the suprapubic area. But characteristic symptoms are considered to be urination disorder symptoms:

Pollakiuria;

  • frequent (intervals between each urination are reduced to 10-15 minutes) and painful urination, and urine comes out in small portions, and there is no feeling of release of the bladder.

Stranguria;

  • This symptom is characterized by frequent and difficult urination due to sharp pain in the process of urination. With cystitis, pain occurs at the beginning and at the end of the physiological process.

Nocturia;

  • the desire to urinate at night arises much more often than the intention to perform the same process during the day. That is, the volume of night urine exceeds the volume of day.

Imperative urges;

  • the imperative urge to urinate is accompanied by the feeling that it is necessary to urinate now, this minute. Such urges accompany inflammation of the bladder and are often accompanied by incontinence.

In addition, with cystitis, urine acquires   muddy color , which is associated with an increase in it   leukocytes responsible for inflammation. Sometimes in the urine you can observe flakes, and its smell becomes unpleasant (putrid). In some cases, blood is visible in the urine (gross hematuria), this may indicate either bladder stones or a tumor in the urinary tract.

Acute cystitis often becomes chronic. This is usually associated with treatment that is incorrect or incomplete until the end, but perhaps also with the presence of unexplained causes of acute cystitis or if the provoking factors are not eliminated .

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of the disease is not difficult. It is necessary to differentiate acute cystitis and   urethritis , bladder diverticulum.

After the doctor has collected complaints and anamnesis, he will refer the patient to an additional examination, including:

General urine analysis;

  • to take for analysis should be the average portion, in case of illness in the urine   an increased number of leukocytes will be determined , sometimes   red blood cells as well as cylinders. The urine reaction becomes alkaline, in it   protein is detected and possibly bacteria (bacteremia).

Ultrasound of the bladder;

  • stones, tumors, indirect signs of cystitis are detected.

Cystoscopy;

  • examination of the bladder with a special apparatus is carried out in case of chronic cystitis.

Swabs on flora from the vagina;

  • the analysis allows to confirm or exclude the possibility of pathogenic microbes entering the bladder.

urine bakposev

  • The causative agent of cystitis is detected and its sensitivity to antibiotics is determined.

Treatment of cystitis in women

With the development of bladder inflammation, it is necessary to consult a urologist or a local physician.

First of all, it is important to change the diet. You should avoid spicy and salty foods, alcohol and coffee, as they irritate the bladder.

The use of free fluid should be increased: drink at least two liters per day (to relieve intoxication and mechanical release of the bladder from germs and their toxins).

Useful special diuretic infusions: a decoction of leaves of lingonberry and bearberry, horsetail, cranberry juice.

Antibiotics and uroseptics are prescribed . Among antibiotics, the group of fluoroquinolones is preferred:

  • Ciprolet (ciprofloxacin) is a broad spectrum antibacterial drug.

Antimicrobial agents are prescribed:

  • furadonin,
  • nitroxoline (allowed for children).

Currently, effective and rapid treatment of acute cystitis patients are offered uroantiseptichesky preparation Monural (fosfomycin). The duration of his admission – 1 day in accordance with the instructions.

Treatment of acute cystitis lasts 7-10 days.

In case of exacerbation of the chronic process, the same therapy is recommended, besides this, it is recommended to drink medicinal teas and infusions monthly as a preventive measure (the monthly course is for 7-10 days).

Treatment of chronic cystitis folk remedies

When treating chronic cystitis, one cannot ignore the recommendations of herbalists. It is recommended to brew the following herbs.

Collection number 1

  • Calamus root marsh – 2 parts
  • Black elderberry flowers – 4 parts
  • Hypericum herb perforatum – 5 parts
  • Sowing Flax Seed – 3 pieces
  • Lemon balm herb – 2 parts
  • Kidney tea leaf – 3 pieces
  • Knotweed Grass – 5 pieces
  • Bearberry leaf – 5 pieces
  • The fruits of fennel – 2 parts.

Collection number 2

  • Calamus root medicinal – 3 parts
  • Cornflower blue flowers – 4 pieces
  • Nettle Leaf – 5 Parts
  • Sowing Flax Seed – 2 pieces
  • Juniper fruits – 3 pieces
  • Peppermint leaf – 1 part
  • Pharmaceutical chamomile flowers – 4 pieces
  • Grass thistle thorny – 4 parts
  • Violet tricolor grass – 5 parts.

Collection number 3

  • Ledum roseum sprouts – 5 parts
  • Herb Veronica officinalis – 5 parts
  • Hypericum herb perforatum – 5 parts
  • Corn stigma ordinary – 3 pieces
  • Sowing Flax Seed – 2 pieces
  • Peppermint leaf – 3 parts
  • Buds of Scots pine – 3 parts
  • Grass horsetail – 4 parts.

Collection number 4

  • White birch buds – 2 parts
  • Oregano herb – 7 parts
  • Hypericum perforatum grass – 3 parts
  • Sowing Flax Seed – 3 pieces
  • Peppermint leaf – 2 parts
  • Parsley herb garden – 5 pieces
  • Asparagus medicinal rhizomes – 2 pieces
  • Knotweed Grass – 5 pieces
  • Shoots of thuja western – 4 parts
  • Eucalyptus leaf – 1 part.

Charges brewed in the evening and insist at least 6 hours. For half a liter of boiling water take 2–3 tbsp. l collection, take in the form of heat 30 minutes before meals 3 times a day.

When exacerbation of chronic cystitis, these fees are taken in shock doses – 5-6 Art. l collection brew in a thermos in 1 liter of boiling water. This is a daily dose of infusion. After 2–3 weeks of administration, the dosage is transferred to the usual dose. In a thermos each time it is desirable to add 1 tbsp. l rose hips.

The course of treatment usually lasts from 1 year to 1.5 years, until the manifestations of the disease disappear completely. For prevention, it is useful to take the collection in the future for 2 months in spring and autumn, and also for any acute respiratory diseases that can trigger an exacerbation of cystitis.

During exacerbations, you can brew a three-component collection:

  • 5 pieces of bearberry leaf
  • 3 pieces of birch buds
  • 5 parts of horsetail grass.

The infusion is prepared as usual and taken for 2-3 weeks. With an alkaline urine reaction, bearberry infusion is taken for 7–10 days: a daily dose of 2 tbsp. l on a half-liter thermos.

Herbal therapy is recommended to continue for several years. Charges need to alternate and do every two months a short break. Usually herbs do not have a side effect, however, it is necessary to do a control urine test from time to time.

For sedentary baths, the following herbs are recommended:

Collection number 1

  • White birch leaf – 5 pieces
  • Oregano herb – 3 parts
  • Black currant leaf – 5 pieces
  • Violet tricolor grass – 2 parts
  • Thyme herb – 4 pieces
  • Eucalyptus leaf – 1 part.

Collection number 2

  • Grass Boudreau hederacea – 5 parts
  • Calendula officinalis flowers – 3 pieces
  • Knotweed Grass – 5 pieces
  • Horsetail grass – 5 pieces
  • Grass celandine – 2 parts.

Collection number 3

  • Grass clover medicinal – 2 parts
  • Pharmaceutical chamomile flowers – 5 pieces
  • Milled codweed grass – 5 parts
  • Hop heads – 3 pieces
  • Sage herb – 5 parts.

To prepare a decoction for the baths for 1 liter of water, take 3 tbsp. l collecting, bring to a boil, filter and cool. The duration of the sitz bath is 10–15 minutes. It is taken 1-2 times a day for 8-12 days. When cystitis can be put on the bladder linen pads, filled with hot steamed grass: chamomile, sage, dried garlic, horsetail.

Consequences and prognosis

Acute cystitis responds well to therapy. But if you ignore the signs of the disease or if the treatment is not followed, the following complications are possible:

  • inflammation of the kidneys ( pyelonephritis );
  • urinary reflux in the ureter and kidneys (throwing urine from the bladder).

Prevention of cystitis

Personal hygiene, timely treatment of inflammatory diseases, and prevention of hypothermia play an important role in the prevention of cystitis.

Prevention of chronic cystitis is the rational treatment of acute cystitis, as well as the timely detection and treatment of diseases of the genitourinary system.

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