Pediculosis or lice is a contagious disease caused by parasitizing three types of lice on the human body. The danger of pediculosis is that insects can be carriers of some serious diseases – typhus or relapsing fever.
Pediculosis causes lice of three types:
- head lice live on the scalp, mustache, beard, eyebrows and eyelashes,
- body lice live on the body and in the skin folds related to clothing,
- pubic lice or ploshchitsy, live in the pubic hair.
Lice can only multiply in warm conditions, when cooled below 15-10 degrees, they die. Pubic and head lice lay nits on the base of the hair, body lice lay eggs in the folds of clothing. After a week, the larvae hatch from them and mature and feed on blood. Adults live up to 40 days.
The source of infection is only human, the transmission of lice is carried out with close contact in organized groups, public transport, use of common things and bed, for pubic lice – a sexually transmitted infection.
The incidence of pediculosis is ubiquitous, the odds are especially high in countries with low sanitary culture. The incubation period for lice about a week, the intensity of the symptoms depends on the degree. Manifestations occur due to lice bites on the head or body, resulting in symptoms of pediculosis.
– it is manifested by intense itching in the head area, because of which the patient constantly scratches his head.
Examination of the scalp reveals areas of skin damage at the site of bites with bright yellow “honey” crusts, as well as signs of folliculitis – inflammation hair follicles, eczema-like skin lesions on the back of the head, at the temples and behind the ears.
May be detected lymphadenitis in the area of the ears and neck. With a long and running pediculosis, mats are formed from hair tangled and glued together with purulent discharge from wounds.
In patients with head lice when examining the head on the hair can be found nits – eggs laid by insects. They can be full, whitish or yellowish, when crushed between the nails they click. Empty nits look gray.
– affects the fate of the skin under clothing on the shoulders, back, armpits, neck and abdomen, lower back and groin area.
At the site of bites, small rashes of mosquito bites with a dark point in the center occur. As the elements develop, their cyanosis and pigmentation appear, and often due to scratching pustular lesions join.
The long course of ward lice leads to thickening of the skin and melasma (brown color), peeling at the places of bites. In place of scratching and purulent lesions, scars are formed.
When pubic pediculosis worries a slight itching of the skin, on the ground bites occur round or oval spots of gray-blue color up to 1 cm. When pressing on these spots, they turn sharply pale. The lice have a low mobility, they can be found at the hair root.
Diagnosis and treatment is carried out by a dermatologist. The basis of the diagnosis – typical complaints of itching and scratching on the head, body skin or pubic. First of all, an examination of the head, body and groin area. On the head, nits and scratches are found in places of bites. In other cases, typical clinical data.
Head lice can be combed over a sheet of white paper, for the rest of the diagnosis – clinical.
From pediculosis must be distinguished scabies , which is also manifested by itchy skin and vulgar impetigo , streptococcal skin lesions.
Treatment of pediculosis is carried out at home, and all contact persons must. Means are used to kill lice and nits in various forms – shampoos, sprays, lotions and emulsions.
When pediculosis in both adults and children, Pediculen Ultra lotion has proven itself well, which eliminates lice and nits for ONE use! Carefully selected complex of active substances of the drug effectively destroys not only adult parasites, but also their larvae, ensuring 100% death of insects. Pediculen does not contain toxic substances and insecticides, therefore it is not toxic, does not violate the structure and hair growth, it is completely safe for children. The conditioner that completes the treatment ensures easy combing of dead insects even from very long hair. Clinically proven efficacy. The tool is certified and sold in pharmacies.
With head lice applicable:
- hair cutting
- combing lice and nits with a special comb antiv,
- Malathion shampoo or lotion 0.5-1%,
- permethrin preparations (nitifor, para-plus, read, sumitrin, phenotrin),
- 20% water-soap emulsion of benzyl benzoate,
- boric ointment
For pubic lice applicable:
- shaving pubic hair,
- treatment of skin and hair medifox emulsion 20%,
- processing 20% emulsion of benzyl benzoate,
- Lontsid solution followed by bathing and linen change.
- vapor-plus solution aerosol, spray pax.
In case of dressing pediculosis, the basis of treatment is the treatment of all things and thorough body washing in the shower with soap and washcloth. Clothes and all accessories of the patient boil or they are treated with steam, if it is impossible to handle the temperature, they are placed in a tight bag using aerosols of anti-pediculosis drugs (karbofos, sulfidos).
- Permethrin: carefully rub the scalp with undiluted preparation, wait until the hair dries (do not wipe or wash). After 2-3 weeks the hair is washed, dried and, if necessary, treated again
- Reed shampoo is applied to the affected areas for 10 minutes, then washed with soap or regular shampoo. Hair treatment is carried out for 10 days.
- Anti-Bit Shampoo: hair is moistened with water, the preparation is applied and rubbed into the hair roots for 3 minutes, then washed and the procedure is repeated. Repeat a course – just for 2 days
- Phenotrin (Ithaca): Apply the lotion on wet hair, rub it in, then rinse it thoroughly, apply it again, wait 5 minutes, then rinse the hair thoroughly and brush it off with a frequent comb. The next day, the procedure is repeated. Spray the aerosol over the scalp 20-30 times, wait 30 minutes, then rinse thoroughly and brush out with a frequent comb; the next day the procedure is repeated
- Attention: Lice killing drugs are never used to treat eyelash lesions!
- Lice are usually removed from the eyelashes and eyebrows with tweezers. On the eyelashes lice can be killed or weakened with simple petroleum jelly.
It is necessary to regularly monitor the condition of hair and body, to maintain hygiene, avoid accidental sexual intercourse to prevent pubic lice. In transport, women are encouraged to remove hair in a ponytail or under clothing.
It is forbidden to use other people’s hats, hairbrushes and combs, barrettes and rubber bands, to wear other people’s clothes.