This is a cavity in the liver filled with fluid.
Liver cyst occurs in approximately 0.8% of the population. In women, it occurs 3-5 times more often than in men, mostly manifested between 30 and 50 years.
Liver cysts are divided into true and false.
According to modern concepts, true cysts in the liver occur if during embryonic development there is no connection to the biliary tract system of individual bile ducts; the lack of reverse development of these passages is the cause of the development of liver cysts.
False cysts develop after a traumatic rupture of the liver. They can also be formed after the treatment of liver abscess, removal of echinococcus.
The contents of the liver cysts is a clear transparent or brown transparent liquid mixed with blood or bile. They are more common in the left lobe of the liver.
Manifestations of liver cysts are not specific. The most frequent symptoms are vague pains in the right hypochondrium and the epigastric region, abdominal asymmetry, the definition of a tumor-like mass in the right hypochondrium.
The decisive factor in the diagnosis belongs to ultrasound and computed tomography of the abdominal cavity.
Computed tomography allows to establish the presence of liver cysts in 100% of cases.
All surgical interventions in liver cysts are divided into radical, conditionally radical, palliative.
A radical operation is liver transplantation.
- husking a cyst with its shells;
- removal of the affected part of the liver;
- excision of the cyst wall.
Palliative surgery for liver cysts:
- opening and emptying the cyst;
- marsupialization of the cyst (the cyst is opened, its contents are removed, and the edges of the wall of the opened cyst are then sutured to the edges of the wound to form an artificial pocket)
- cystoentero -, cystogastroanastomoz (i.e. creating a message of the cyst cavity with the intestinal cavity or the stomach).
Indications for surgical treatment:
- giant cyst of any localization (more than 10 cm in diameter);
- cyst with a central location in the gate of the liver (with compression of the choleretic tract and / or with symptoms of portal hypertension );
- a cyst with pronounced manifestations (constant pain in the hypochondrium, digestive disorders, emaciation, etc.).
- large cysts (from 3 to 10 cm in diameter);
- isolated cyst of III-IV segments;
- recurrent liver cysts in case of failure of puncture treatment methods.
Patients with liver cysts with a diameter of 3 cm are subject to follow-up.