Chronic laryngitis

The reasons

Kinds

Symptoms of chronic laryngitis

Diagnostics

Treatment of chronic laryngitis

Complications

Prevention

Laryngitis is a long-term inflammatory process in the mucous membranes of the larynx. About the chronic course of laryngitis say when the disease lasts more than three weeks.

Curing chronic laryngitis is much more difficult than the acute form of laryngitis. Very often, laryngitis occurs in conjunction with chronic pharyngitis , tracheitis.   

The reasons

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Chronic laryngitis develops in adults under the influence of the following factors:

  • presence of foci of chronic infections (streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci) – sinusitis, adenoiditis , carious lesion of teeth, rhinitis, pharyngitis;
  • frequent hypothermia;
  • frequent acute inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract;
  • violations of nasal breathing due to the curvature of the nasal septum, polyps (constant mouth breathing);  
  • exposure to industrial dust in hazardous industries;
  • living in large industrial metropolitan areas;
  • high voice loads, for example, work as a speaker or teacher;
  • prolonged excessive smoking;
  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract ( reflux esophagitis );
  • long stay in rooms with dry air.

Virus infections can also provoke an exacerbation of chronic laryngitis.

Kinds

There are three types of chronic laryngitis in adults:

  • catarrhal;
  • atrophic;
  • hypertrophic.

More information about the features of each type – in the “Symptoms”.

All types of chronic laryngitis with periods of exacerbations and remissions of this disease occur.

Symptoms of chronic laryngitis

The main clinical manifestations of chronic laryngitis are the following symptoms:

  • feeling of sore throat;
  • hoarseness;
  • cough;
  • feeling of dryness;
  • decrease in voice in the evening, until aphonia.

Manifestations of chronic laryngitis depend largely on the type of disease.

Catarrhal chronic laryngitis

So the catarrhal form of chronic laryngitis develops with frequent acute laryngitis in adults.

In a patient, all the symptoms are unexpressed, maybe:

  • slight dry cough;
  • feeling of tickling, tickling in the larynx;
  • there is a slight hyperemia of the mucous membrane of the larynx;
  • lowering the tone of voice in the evening.

With the development of acute catarrhal laryngitis in an adult, all signs of acute laryngitis occur, cough, aphonia, and discharge of mucus when coughing intensifies.

Atrophic form

For the atrophic type of chronic laryngitis is characteristic, the development of thinning of the mucous membranes of the larynx. This form develops for a long time. 

The patient develops a constant feeling of dryness and tickling in the larynx, because of the dryness of the mucous membranes, there is a frequent cough.

When coughing, viscous, difficult-to-separate sputum can stand out.

The following symptoms can be found in the larynx on the mucous membranes:

  • reddish gray shade of mucous membranes;
  • areas of hyperemia on the surface of the vocal cords;
  • crusts with a yellowish tinge;
  • during the separation of crusts eroded areas of mucous membranes occur;
  • patches of small-point hemorrhages may occur.

Hypertrophic form

The hypertrophic type of chronic laryngitis is characterized by the presence of such symptoms:

  • feeling of a foreign object in the larynx;
  • pain in the larynx during a conversation;
  • pronounced hoarseness;
  • cough;
  • gray-red shade mucous larynx;
  • thickening of the vocal cords;
  • thickening of the mucous membranes of the larynx in the subgillatory region may develop;
  • nodules are formed, tubercles on the mucous membranes of the larynx.

Hypertrophic chronic laryngitis is a precancerous disease, very often it leads to the development of laryngeal cancer.

Diagnostics

If any of the signs of chronic laryngitis is found, a mandatory consultation of a otolaryngologist is necessary.

The following measures are taken for diagnosis:

  • laryngoscopy – examination of the mucous membranes of the larynx with the help of mirrors and endoscopic devices;
  • specifies the development of the disease;
  • possible factors contributing to the development of chronic laryngitis are determined;
  • in the presence of hypertrophic changes in the vocal cords, a biopsy of the nodules, hillocks, areas of thickening of the larynx mucosa is performed;
  • as necessary, computed or magnetic resonance imaging can be performed.

If there is suspicion of a malignant process of the larynx, the patient is referred for consultation to an oncologist.

Treatment of chronic laryngitis

In the treatment of chronic laryngitis plays an important role pathological process.

There are general guidelines for the treatment of any type of chronic laryngitis:

  • voice rest for the time expressed changes, and then reducing the load on the ligamentous ligamentous apparatus;
  • rejection of bad habits;
  • avoid inhalation of harmful substances in industrial production, use of personal protective equipment;
  • timely treatment of all inflammatory diseases of the nasopharynx, teeth, gastrointestinal organs;
  • regular room ventilation;
  • the use of humidifiers to maintain normal humidity of inhaled air;
  • elimination of hot, sharp, salty, cold foods.

First of all, in the presence of chronic laryngitis, it is necessary to exclude all negative impacts.

Antibacterial therapy is carried out mainly only with the development of exacerbations, for this purpose the following means are used:

  • Augmentin;
  • Flemoxin;
  • Hemomycin;
  • Cefixime;
  • Ceftriaxone.

It is possible to restore normal microflora in the presence of catarrhal laryngitis using:

  • Lizobact:
  • IRS-19;
  • Immudon;
  • Broncho Vaks;
  • Immunal.

For exacerbations, local antiseptics are also used:

  • Hexoral;
  • Miramistin;
  • Ingalipt;
  • Strepsils;
  • Falimint.

Well help in the treatment of chronic laryngitis inhalation using a nebulizer by the following means:

  • mineral water;
  • saline solution;
  • Lasolvan.

With atrophic laryngitis

With the development of atrophic laryngitis, inhalations with Trypsin and Chymotrypsin are used, they help to restore the larynx mucosa.

Also, if there are signs of atrophy, the following treatment is also used:

  • electrophoresis;
  • laser therapy;
  • vitamin therapy.

In hypertrophic laryngitis

With the development of hypertrophic laryngitis, conservative treatment is carried out using the above means, and effects are used to stop the growth of tissues. These include the use of the following tools:

  • zinc sulfate;
  • Collargol;
  • sea ​​buckthorn oil;
  • hormonal drugs.

With the ineffectiveness of conservative treatment of hypertrophic chronic laryngitis, surgical treatment is carried out.

Currently carry out laser removal of all formations on the mucous membranes of the larynx. If the growths are massive, diffuse, then they are partially removed (the thickest areas).

After surgical treatment, the removed tissue sites are necessarily investigated, this is done to exclude the oncological process.

Complications

Complications in chronic laryngitis are rare, only in the absence of treatment and the continuation of the impact of negative factors:

  • paresis of the vocal cords (motor activity of the muscles of the larynx is disturbed);
  • the occurrence of suffocation with a significant degree of narrowing of the lumen of the glottis;
  • loss of voice;
  • the formation of benign and malignant neoplasms of the larynx.

Prevention

To prevent the formation of chronic laryngitis, you must comply with the following recommendations:

  • to give up smoking;
  • exclusion of alcohol, hot, hot, cold foods;
  • treatment of chronic foci of infection;
  • compliance loads on the vocal cords;
  • increased immunity;
  • personal protective equipment for respiratory tract production. 

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