Genital warts (condilomatosis, anogenital warts) – a viral disease that manifests itself as benign neoplasms primarily in the area of the mucous and skin of the external genital organs and anus.
Both men and women are affected. More than half of the patients received genital warts as a result of sexual intercourse.
Causes the development of genital warts, human papillomavirus (HPV). In nature, there are more than 100 species, but the culprits of the disease, according to some authors, are only certain non-oncogenic types.
It is known that human papillomavirus is present in the body of each individual, but only under certain conditions the formation of genital warts occurs.
- intimate contact with condilomatosis patients;
- early sex life;
- promiscuity in sexual relationships;
- the neglect of condoms (although this moment is not justified, since the diameter of the virus is much smaller than the pores in the condom);
- weakened immunity (HIV-infected, persistent stress, hypovitaminosis, cancer patients, etc.);
- sexually transmitted infections;
- age from 17 to 33 years.
The first manifestations of the disease from the moment of infection appear in a few weeks or months, in some cases in a few years.
As a rule, genital warts occur immediately and grow “right before your eyes”, reaching their maximum size after a few hours. Further growth of formations stops. Genital warts look like benign lesions on a thin stalk with a wide base, the surface of which is uneven and hilly.
In connection with this circumstance they are compared with cauliflower. Often, genital warts are multiple, up to 10-20 formations.
Their sizes vary from several millimeters to several centimeters.
It is extremely rare, but there are gigantic genital warts that tend to die off due to the fact that the vascular network is not developed in the formation. Their color is also different and can be flesh-colored, purple, pink or red.
The favorite localization of genital warts is the anogenital region.
In men, education is more often found on the frenulum of the penis or in the region of the coronary sulcus, less frequently on the head, scrotum, sponges of the urethra, or the body of the penis.
In women, genital warts can be observed on the clitoris, large and small labia, on the walls of the vagina and cervix, in the urethra or near it. In both men and women, education is deployed in the perineum, around the anus, in the anus and oropharynx (during oral sexual contacts).
Differential diagnosis of genital warts is carried out with extensive warts (characteristic of syphilis), malignant skin lesions, scabies lymphatic plasmosis.
Diagnosis of genital warts is easily established during the examination, but to confirm the diagnosis using the following methods:
- blood for PCR (confirms the presence of human papillomavirus DNA);
- blood for syphilis and HIV infection;
- oncocytology smear with condylo in both sexes and with the cervix in women;
- screening for sexually transmitted diseases (preferably both sexual partners);
- colposcopy for women;
- urocystoscopy in the presence of warts in the urethra;
- if necessary, biopsy of education.
Various doctors are engaged in the treatment of genital warts. As a rule, it is a venereologist.
In women, a gynecologist may carry out treatment, in men, a urologist and andrologist. If the localization of genital warts in the oropharynx, their treatment is the prerogative of the ENT doctor.
The points of view of doctors in terms of removing warts vary. Some are in favor of removal, others are against.
There are conservative and surgical removal of warts. It should be remembered that getting rid of genital warts does not relieve the patient from the human papillomavirus.
Each removal method has advantages and disadvantages, but the common disadvantage of all methods is that a relatively high percentage of relapses remain (up to 30%).
Used methods of getting rid of genital warts:
The essence of the method lies in the processing of formations with liquid nitrogen. The advantages include low cost and painless removal, to minuses – a high risk of burns in healthy areas of the skin, after which scars remain.
Treatment of genital warts with a laser beam (irradiation). The advantages of this method are in efficiency and safety, disadvantages in some painful procedures, as well as in high prices due to expensive equipment.
The method consists in treating genital warts with chemical preparations (podophyllotoxin). The advantages include efficiency, cheapness and almost complete painlessness, and disadvantages include the duration of treatment (up to 5 weeks), the likelihood of burns in healthy skin areas.
This method is concluded in that genital warts burn with high frequency current. The advantages include low cost and effectiveness, and the disadvantages of soreness (requires anesthesia) and the possible formation of scars.
Since the removal of condylomas is only a symptomatic treatment, along with the fight against formations it is necessary to carry out antiviral and immunostimulating treatment.
Genital warts can be complicated and lead to the following processes:
- trauma formations;
- suppuration of the warts;
- phimosis in men with localization on the frenulum of the penis;
- malignant processes in both sexes;
- further growth and distribution of warts.
The prognosis of genital warts is relatively favorable, since there is a risk of recurrence during removal, as well as the likelihood of transformation into malignant tumors.