Lipoma or adipose is called a tumor formation of benign nature, originating from adipose tissue. Lipoma may be delimited from other tissues of the capsule or be diffusely located in the tissues.
Lipoma is more common in women of middle age, from 30 to 45-50 years. The usual localization of lipomas are areas rich in adipose tissue:
- skin and hypoderm,
- intermuscular areas of adipose tissue
- pararenal fatty tissue,
- retroperitoneal fat
- digestive tract (guts),
- mediastinum area,
rare localizations of lipomas are the myocardium, the meninges and lungs, nerve trunks and bones. Typically, such lipomas are heterotopic, that is, they are formed from embryonic tissues, during the laying of tissues that are not in their area.
The exact cause for the occurrence of lipoma has not been identified, it is just noted that lipomas can be single and multiple (lipomatosis). At the same time, the authors speak about the cause of lipoma development as neurotrophic processes (due to the lack of nutrition of certain nerves, fat accumulates in their zone). The growth of a lipoma does not depend on the weight of the patient, even with strong weight loss the lipoma continues to grow and accumulate fat.
Classification of lipomas
Lipomas, depending on the location and origin, as well as the external and internal structure can be divided into:
- classic lipomas containing only fatty tissue inside,
- fibrolipomas containing inside adipose and connective tissue,
- miolipoma, having in parallel with adipose tissue many muscle fibers,
- angiolipomas containing vessels in the composition,
- mixolipomas contain elements of mucous tissue,
- myelolipomas contain elements of hematopoietic tissue together with fat,
- gibernomy, education in fiber, similar to the tissues of hibernating animals.
By type of lipoma can be divided into:
- ring-shaped lipoma of the neck, located in the form of a necklace in the area of the cervical tissue,
- treelike lipomas inside joints,
- encapsulated lipomas with clear edges and dense shells,
- diffuse lipomas without clear boundaries and capsules,
- painful lipomas or multiple lipomatosis,
- ossified and petrified lipomas – formation of bone elements and calcium deposits inside the lipoma,
leg lipomas are subcutaneous forms that have legs with a vessel and a nerve.
Lipomas have a knotty character, inside they are filled with fatty cells of various sizes, from very small to giant. Between normal fat cells there are special cells – cambial or rudimentary, which can give growth to cells of another type. Lipomas grow slowly and for a long time, without causing discomfort. However, with constant injury in rare cases can be transformed into malignant.
Lipoma looks pretty typical. Especially with surface localization. It usually represents:
- mobile and painless education
- knot under the skin in size from 0.5 to 10-15 cm,
- the knot is prone to slow growth even with weight loss,
- movable node
- consistency from testovatoy to dense,
- at palpation the formation is painless,
- There may be signs of compression of blood vessels and nerves
with inconvenient localization and friction on clothing, it can become inflamed and fester.
Typical localization of subcutaneous lipomas are the face, head, back and chest, shoulder girdle and neck, legs and abdomen are less common.
Complaints are usually aesthetic and cosmetic, pain and physical discomfort do not give lipomas, except for neck lipoma, which leads to compression of the respiratory tract and breathing problems.
Lipomas can be suspected on the basis of manifestations. When examining a tumor, it is:
located in areas of accumulation of adipose tissue
movable when feeling,
the consistency is soft or slightly compacted,
when stretching the skin over it, a typical tissue retraction occurs.
In order to determine the nature of the formation, puncture with thin needles is used to study a fragment of tissue. In order to further and accurately diagnose tumors inside the body, apply:
Ultrasound, which determines the accumulation of adipose tissue,
X-ray examination with detection of foci of enlightenment,
X-ray of soft tissues with the use of “soft rays”.
if intestinal lipomas are suspected, an x-ray with contrast is applied,
CT or MRI formations.
Despite external similarity, the lipoma should be distinguished from hygroma and atheroma.
Diagnostics and treatment of lipoma are practiced by surgeons. Treatment of lipomas only operative, conservative methods of therapy does not exist. Indications for online removal:
- aesthetic defect
- organ compression
- large lipoma,
- leg lipoma,
- permanent injury to the lipoma.
There are several methods of therapy:
- classical surgery with cuts and complete removal of the tumor with a capsule, it is used for uncomfortable localizations and large sizes of the defect,
- endoscopic removal of the tumor through special tubes with suction of adipose tissue from the capsule,
- laser removal of lipoma under local anesthesia,
- electrocoagulation of a lipoma,
- radio wave surgery of a lipoma with removal of its tissues.
The prognosis of lipomas is favorable, they are completely removed and do not give a relapse. With incomplete removal, repeated lipomas may occur. Life and health in the vast majority of cases, lipomas do not threaten.