Hygroma is a benign tumor bounded by a capsule that is filled with a clear liquid. Hygroma fixed its base to the area of the tendons or joints, representing a round-shaped tumor, which is covered with unchanged skin.
Usually, hygroma does not cause any discomfort to patients, it can exist for years without attracting attention. The hygroma is usually planned to remove the surgery in case of complications or cosmetic defects, with the appearance of pain or with the active development of education.
Hygroma can occur at any age, more often they occur in men engaged in manual labor.
There are no exact reasons for the development of hygroma , however, several predisposing factors are distinguished:
- joint injuries or tendons
- excessive stress on the tendon area,
- previous inflammations in the ligamentous apparatus, bursitis or tendovaginitis,
- – forced occupational unusual position of the joints or tendon tension (programmers, pianists).
Typical hygrom localizations :
- wrist joint
- brain (rare)
Hygromas are usually localized in the region of the synovial bags (special formations in the joints), which are located superficially under the skin.
Hygromas are more often on the extensor surface of the joints, less often they can be localized in the area of the flexion zone, in which case they can cause inconvenience.
When communicating with the cavity of the joints, fluid may flow into the joint and temporarily disappear, then it is mistakenly thought that the hygroma has passed. Then it arises again, interfering with the movements familiar to the joints.
At primary occurrence, the hygroma can proceed without any inconvenience, gradually increasing its size. The main features of hygroma include:
- rounded education up to 3-5 cm,
- smooth surface hygroma,
- soft, elastic texture,
- the skin over the hygroma is thickened, slightly rough, the color is not changed,
- squeezing hygroma causes joint discomfort,
- full movement of the joint may be disrupted,
- it is difficult for a hygro to budge, it is fixed to its base,
- for large sizes, you can feel the movement of fluid,
- feeling the tumor painlessly
- no fever and malaise,
- the course of the disease is long, chronic,
- for larger sizes, the hygrom causes painful phenomena.
Private versions of hygroma may have some features depending on the location and size. So the hygroma of the foot is manifested:
localization in the ankle area, on the outer surface of the phalangeal bones,
may interfere with the wearing of shoes, normal walking,
constant injury to shoes leads to its increase, the compression of blood vessels and nerves, pain and inflammation occur.
Such localizations require urgent removal.
Hygroma of the knee is widespread, occurs when excessive loads on the knees or injuries. It is characterized by:
- localization in the popliteal area
- violation of flexion movements of the leg,
- Requires urgent removal.
Brain hygromas can be of two types:
subdural (located under the dura mater),
intradural (located inside, between the sheets of the dura mater).
Hygroms of the neck arise as a variant of the defect in newborns, are located on the side of the neck, grow in the direction of the armpit or mediastinum. There may be a variant of the development of cystic hygroma of the neck, as a malformation of the lymphatic system of the fetus.
In case of typical localization of the hygroma, the diagnosis is made clinically, on the basis of complaints and examination with palpation of the tumor elements. In case of difficult localizations or in case of doubt, it is carried out:
Ultrasound education and the surrounding soft tissue
puncture of education with a sample of material for histological examination.
Despite the resemblance, hygroma should be distinguished from atheroma and lipoma.
Diagnostics and treatment of hygromas are performed by surgeons. The methods of conservative therapy in the treatment of hygroma were ineffective and are not used today. From operational methods applicable:
crushing hygroma with fluid spreading through the joint cavity. The method is painful, the shell of the hygroma breaks with it, but over time a relapse occurs, there may be complications in the form of a purulent process.
puncturing hygromas (puncture with a fine needle) with the suction of the contents and the introduction into the cavity of various absorbable drugs. The method often gives relapses.
surgical treatment, cutting off the ganglion. This method provides a guarantee of no relapse, is carried out under local anesthesia, the operation time is not more than half an hour. Stitches heal within a week. With difficult localizations and large size hygromas can be shown general anesthesia.
hygroma laser with its heating and complete destruction.
After the removal of the hygroma , plaster is applied to the restoration time in order to prevent its reappearance.
For the prevention of hygromy formation, it is necessary to select the optimal labor regime and take measures to prevent joint injuries. In the case of legs, wearing proper shoes, distribution and optimization of physical exertion is necessary.