Chlamydia

Types of chlamydial infections

The reasons

Chlamydia symptoms

Chlamydia Analysis

Treatment

Complications and prognosis

Diseases caused by chlamydia are called chlamydia or chlamydial infections.

Chlamydia can be infected from both humans and animals. The most dangerous are such types of chlamydia as   Chlamydia psittaci and chlamydia pecorum that enter the human body through contact with sick animals and birds and chlamydia trachomatis and chlamydia pneumoniae , their infection occurs from a sick person.

Chlamydia are stable in the environment for 36-48 hours, die by boiling for 1 minute and after treatment with antiseptics (alcohol, high concentrations of chlorine solutions, solutions of hydrogen peroxide and potassium permanganate).

Types of chlamydial infections

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Depending on which organ affects chlamydia, there are several types of chlamydia.

Chlamydia psittaci causes ornithosis and chlamydial conjunctivitis.

Chlamydia trachomatis in newborns causes

  • chlamydial conjunctivitis,
  • nasopharyngitis,
  • otitis

in adults

  • urogenital chlamydia (urethritis, cystitis, prostatitis, cervicitis, endometritis, adnexitis),
  • proctitis
  • cholecystitis.

Also some types of chlamydia trachomatis cause trachoma and venereal lymphogranulomatosis.

Chlamydia pneumoniae infects the respiratory and cardiovascular systems with development pneumonia , bronchitis, bronchial asthma, endocarditis and other diseases.

Chlamydial infection can be acute, chronic and asymptomatic.

The reasons

It becomes clear that chlamydia causes chlamydia. But there are a number of predisposing factors for infection with these microorganisms:

Urogenital Chlamydia:

  • promiscuity;
  • wearing intrauterine device;
  • non-compliance with personal hygiene.

Other factors:

  • close contact with animals and birds;
  • non-compliance with personal hygiene;
  • factors that contribute to the weakening of the immune system (taking antibiotics, vitamin deficiencies, hypothermia, stress, etc.).

Ways of transmission of chlamydial infection: sexual, contact-domestic, intrauterine and intranatal (in childbirth when the child passes through the infected birth canal of the mother).

Chlamydia symptoms

The incubation period for chlamydia is 7-21 days. Infection, as a rule, has non-specific symptoms of the disease, therefore, it is rarely diagnosed in acute form and in 90% of cases it becomes chronic.

Urogenital Chlamydia

Most often, urogenital chlamydia develops as urethritis and cervicitis .

Patients complain of frequent and painful urination, vitreous discharge from the urethra and / or genital tract, the appearance (rarely) of a drop of blood when urinating.

With ascending chlamydial infection in men, the seminal vesicles ( vesiculitis ), prostate ( prostatitis ), membranes and the testes themselves ( epididymitis and orchitis), and in women the uterus ( endometritis ) and appendages ( adnexitis ), which have the characteristic manifestations of all these diseases.

Ornithosis

Infection occurs from sick birds and animals. The main symptoms of the disease are:

  • increase in body temperature to 39 ° C
  • general intoxication (weakness, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting),
  • damage to the lungs with the development of pneumonia,
  • brain damage with the development of meningitis,
  • splenosis and hepatomegaly (enlargement of the spleen and liver).

Chlamydia bronchopulmonary system

As a rule, pulmonary chlamydia occurs in the type of acute obstructive   bronchitis   and   bronchial asthma . Patients are worried about a dry, unproductive cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, periodic attacks of breathlessness.

Trachoma

Chlamydial infection of the conjunctiva and the cornea of ​​the eye, followed by scarring of the mucous membrane, eyelid cartilage and the development of blindness.

Venereal lymphogranulomatosis

Called chlamydia, it affects the soft tissues of the urogenital area and inguinal lymph nodes.

In the final stages of the disease in the skin of the perineum and genitals mucosal ulcers formed, which subsequently creating sclerosis and scarring.

Reiter’s syndrome

Conjunctiva of the eyes, joints and urogenital organs are consistently or simultaneously affected. Symptoms of the disease are characteristic of conjunctivitis, arthritis and urethritis.

Chlamydia Analysis

It is very difficult to diagnose chlamydial infection. Detection of chlamydia in any way in biological material speaks about human infection. It is advisable to use several methods of diagnosis of chlamydia:

Cultural method

Growing cells infected with chlamydia on nutrient media. Biological materials are scrapings from mucous membranes, semen and urine. The method is reliable in 90% of cases of diagnosis, allows you to identify live chlamydia and determine their sensitivity to antibiotics.

Immunofluorescence method

Detection in the preparation prepared from scraping mucous membrane and stained with special dyes, glowing in the dark areas of cells of chlamydia or whole microorganisms.

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

  • Detection of a certain type of antibody in the patient’s blood.
  • Availability   IgM ( type M immunoglobulins ) indicates an acute infection, and detection of   IgG (type G immunoglobulins) is evidence of a previous infection.  
  • Reducing the titer (number) of IgM allows you to judge the positive effect of treatment and the beginning of recovery.

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method

For the study taken smears from the urethra, cervical canal, with eyelids and / or urine sediment. Chlamydia DNA is detected in preparations.

PCR is the most sensitive and effective way to diagnose chlamydial infection.

Treatment

Treatment of chlamydial infection is a very complex and time-consuming process. The doctor who identified chlamydia deals with the treatment.

For example, urogenital chlamydia is treated by a gynecologist and a urologist-andrologist, pulmonary chlamydia is a pulmonologist or therapist, and eye damage is an ophthalmologist. In addition, an immunologist and a laboratory assistant are involved in the treatment.

The main treatment for chlamydia is the prescription of antibiotics.

Antibiotics are used.

  • macrolide groups (azithromycin, clarithromycin, rovamycin),  
  • tetracycline series ( doxycycline, tetracycline),
  • fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin ).

The course of antibiotic treatment lasts 10-21 days, depending on whether it is a chronic process or acute, as well as the degree of the disease.

Along with antibiotics are prescribed

  • multivitamins,
  • immunomodulatory drugs ( taktivin, thymalin),
  • enzymes ( festal, karsil ),
  • antifungal agents ( nystatin, fluconazole),
  • probiotics ( lactobacterin, bifidumbacterin orally and in vaginal tampons) for the prevention of intestinal and vaginal dysbacteriosis.

Women with urogenital chlamydia are given topical treatment in the form of douches with antiseptic solutions and the introduction of vaginal tampons with antibacterial ointments.

During antibiotic therapy, which is conducted by both sexual partners, patients are prohibited from sexual contact, alcohol, spicy and salty foods.

After completing the course of treatment, both partners pass control tests for chlamydia and repeat the tests twice a month and two. Women need to take tests after menstruation.

When treating all types of chlamydial infections, it is very important to observe personal hygiene measures (daily change of underwear, personal towels, etc.).

Complications and prognosis

Possible complications of urogenital chlamydial infection:

  • male and female infertility;
  • chronic diseases of the pelvic organs (prostatitis, vesiculitis, endometritis, adnexitis, adhesive disease);
  • risk   ectopic   pregnancy;
  • Reiter’s syndrome;
  • miscarriage ;
  • child birth with developmental disabilities;
  • stricture (narrowing) of the urethra;
  • postpartum purulent-septic diseases;
  • cervical cancer.

Despite the complexity of the cure for chlamydia, the prognosis for the life of patients is favorable.

In 50% of cases, urogenital chlamydia leads to infertility.

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