Salmonellosis is an intestinal infection caused by numerous pathogens from the genus Salmonella, which is characterized by pronounced intoxication and gastrointestinal symptoms.
Salmonella tolerate freezing, drying, survive up to two months in water, accumulate in dairy and meat products, resistant to salting, smoking, pickles. When boiling quickly destroyed.
The main sources of infection are animals, occasionally people. The duration of latent salmonellosis in animals can last for years. Asymptomatic disease is established in many species of farm animals, cats, dogs, rodents, birds.
The main route of infection is food, while various food products can be factors of transmission – mammals, poultry, fish, eggs and egg products, milk and dairy products, etc. The second route of infection is water, where the transmission factor is open water. or tap water in emergency situations.
Salmonella, overcome the barrier of the stomach, quickly infiltrate into the mucous membrane of the small intestine. The vital activity of Salmonella in the intestinal mucosa is accompanied by the production of toxins, which cause the development of diarrhea, pain and intoxication symptoms.
The incubation period for salmonellosis ranges from 6 hours to 2-3 days, averaging 12-24 hours. Often the disease begins acutely: chills, fever up to 38-39C, headache, weakness, indisposition, cramping abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. The chair is liquid, watery, frothy, fetid, greenish in color from 5 to 10 times a day. On the 2-3rd day of the disease in some patients an admixture of mucus and (rarely) blood is found in the stools. The duration of the disease in most cases from 2 to 10 days.
Complications include peritonitis, toxic expansion of the intestine, reactive polyarthritis, infectious-toxic and dehydration shocks.
The typhoid – like variant of salmonellosis usually begins with signs of lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, however, it can proceed from the very beginning without intestinal function disorder. The duration of fever ranges from 10-14 days to 3-4 weeks. The temperature often reaches 39-40C.The skin of patients is pale, sometimes elements of rash are found on the stomach and torso.
Bacteriological and serological studies are necessary to confirm the diagnosis of salmonellosis. The material for bacteriological studies are blood, feces, urine, vomit, gastric lavage, bile, pus from inflammation. For the detection of antibodies using the reaction of indirect hemagglutination. The minimum diagnostic titer is 1: 200.
Inpatient treatment of salmonellosis is indicated for moderate and severe forms of the disease, young children, the elderly.
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( indomethacin 0.05×3 times in 9-12 hours) under the cover of means protecting the gastric mucosa ( smecta , polysorb MP).
- Binding and elimination of toxin from the intestine ( polyphepan , lignosorb , activated carbon, waulen , etc., 5-20 g 3 times a day; enterodez 5 g in 100 ml of water 3 times a day)
- Neutralization of the toxin by the enzymes: Pancreatin, Mezim- forte, etc., in combination with calcium preparations and alkaline and solutions (Bourget mixture).
- Neutralization of the pathogen. Mild salmonellosis: furazolidone , furadonin , furagin 0.1×4 times, a course of 5 days or an intrix of 2 capsules x 3 times, a course of 5 days or entero-sediv 1 tablet 3 times a day. Moderate course: ciprofloxacin ( cyprobay , tsifran 0.5×2 times, ofloxacin (tarved 0.4×2 times) or other. Course 7 days. Severe course of salmonellosis: ofloxacin ( tarvid ) or ciprofloxacin ( ciplox ) 200 mg 2 times in / in drip It is possible to combine fluoroquinolones with aminoglycosides and cephalosporins. A course of 3-5 days. Further fluoroquinolones . A course of 10-14 days.
- Recovery of salt balance with glucose- salt solutions ( rehydron , citroglucosolan , etc.).
- Removal of toxins through the skin. Skin care. Thermal comfort.
- Rutin preparations, vitamin C.
- Impact on the neuromuscular apparatus of the intestine ( Buscopan, metacin, belladonna, platifillin and mebeverin, papaverine, no- spa, halidor )
- Auxiliary means: phytotherapy (astringent, enveloping, carminative agents), meteospasmil, zeolate.
- Restoration of intestinal biocenosis. The course of biological products from 3 weeks to 1.5 months.
Prevention of salmonellosis is aimed at preventing the spread of the disease among domestic animals, compliance with sanitary regime at the enterprises of the food industry and catering. Crucial in this case is the mechanization and automation of technological processes in enterprises producing food.