Parainfluenza is an acute respiratory infection of viral origin that affects the upper respiratory tract, mainly the nose, oropharynx, and larynx.
When parainfluenza symptoms of intoxication (general weakness, loss of appetite, fever) and typical colds.
Infection is widespread among children and less common among adults.
Parainfluenza is caused by three main types of viruses, these are RNA-containing viruses. The pathogen is very unstable to external factors, dies at room temperature after a couple of hours, when heated – instantly.
Parainfluenza viruses are susceptible to most disinfectants. The disease can occur in any season, but the increase in incidence occurs in autumn and winter. The share of parainfluenza accounts for up to 20-30% of all. SARS . Most often, children of early age are ill.
The main source of viruses is a sick person. It becomes contagious on the last day of the incubation period, and then infectiousness persists for another 5–9 days from the onset of the disease.
Viruses are transmitted in the usual way for SARS: sneezing, coughing, talking, kissing, with particles of saliva or mucus.
Once in the nasal and oropharyngeal region, the virus is deposited, and then penetrates into all environments of the body. The epithelium is affected by the virus, and local inflammation is formed as a result.
When parainfluenza occurs edema of the pharynx, accumulation of mucus in the nasal passages, which is manifested, above all, sore throat and runny nose.
With the penetration of the pathogen into the blood, the formation of a toxic reaction – fever with a headache and loss of appetite. With a decrease in immunity, complications are frequent.
The typical form of parainfluenza mainly affects the upper respiratory tract, the process involves the pharynx, nose, and larynx.
The incubation stage lasts from two days to a week, mostly it is 3-4 days. The prodromal stage (precursor of the disease) is practically not expressed and the typical symptoms of parainfluenza infection appear almost immediately.
In the period of the height of the manifestations are characteristic:
- moderate intoxication, headaches,
- temperature increase within 38 degrees,
- children may have lethargy, weakness, anorexia with nausea and vomiting,
- swelling of the mucous membranes of the nose and throat,
- sore throat when swallowing,
- swelling of the vocal cords with symptoms of laryngitis – harsh or barking, dry, debilitating cough,
- from the nose is light, not abundant discharge, without pus.
In the recovery period, the runny nose stops, the cough becomes wet, the voice becomes normal, sonorous. For several weeks, there remains an increased susceptibility to microbial infection due to a decrease in immunity.
Atypical form more often in adults and adolescents, it is typical for her:
- normal body temperature
- no symptoms of intoxication,
- scanty nasal discharge
- faint red about arches and coughing.
Features of parainfluenza in infants manifested in:
- gradual increase in temperature (not higher than 38 degrees),
- denial of breast or bottle,
- lethargy and pallor,
- muscle weakness
- a weak but prolonged runny nose
- hoarse voice.
Up to 4-5 months, the vocal cords are rarely involved in the process, however, microbial flora often joins and the disease is delayed for several weeks.
In fact, parainfluenza is one type of ARVI. The final diagnosis is made only after laboratory confirmation. If this is not the case, they speak of an acute respiratory viral infection.
What distinguishes them from each other is what parainfluences can cause in children laryngitis , as well as dry paroxysmal cough.
The basis of the diagnosis is a clinical picture with specific signs of the disease:
- indication of confirmed cases of parainfluenza in the environment,
- under five years of age for typical shape
- acute onset with toxicosis and fever
- swelling of the mucous membrane with a runny nose,
- defeat of the vocal cords with croaking cough.
In this supplement is the technique:
- linked immunosorbent assay,
- serological diagnosis
- virus isolation from patients.
Methods are expensive and are used only if there are complications.
Parainfluenza therapy is performed at home, and if there are complications or signs of croup (stenosing laryngitis) or bronchitis – in the hospital.
- bed rest during fever,
- nutrition enriched with vitamins and minerals, milk and vegetable diet,
- in severe forms, antiviral therapy with immunoglobulins is shown, with a high concentration of antibodies to influenza virus, parainfluenza and ARVI,
- recombinant interferon preparations,
- increased doses of ascorbic acid,
- preparations for nasal breathing relief – vasoconstrictor, oil-based, seawater-based,
- with painful dry cough – inhalation therapy with saline, alkaline mineral water or mucolytics (diluting sputum),
- with fever antipyretic, but only at high temperatures, diaphoretic decoctions (lime blossom, St. John’s wort),
- children over three years old must have foot baths with mustard, wraps, rubbing with medicinal herbs, if there is no temperature.
With the development of laryngitis requires hospitalization with intensive care – inhalation, hormonal and antiviral.
Antibiotics are indicated in the case of a proven bacterial infection overlaid on the primary disease.
Specific preventive measures pararrippa not developed, there is no vaccine from him. Interferon use is possible, especially for contact persons.
For the rest, it is possible to avoid parainfluenza infection by adhering to the general principles of prevention of viral infections:
- limit contacts during the epidemic season,
- often ventilate the room, wash your hands and face,
- take vitamins and immunostimulants
- in rooms where there is sick, wear a cotton gauze bandage,
- to temper.