Candidiasis

Causes of candidiasis
Symptoms of candidiasis
Diagnostics
Candidiasis during pregnancy
Treatment
Complications of candidiasis
Prevention


Candidiasis or thrush is a disease in which mucous membranes and skin are affected by a yeast-like fungus of the genus Candida. 

These microorganisms belong to the conditionally pathogenic microflora, that is, in a small amount they constantly inhabit the skin, the mucous membranes of the mouth, genital organs of healthy people, and their growth is restrained by the immune system of the body. With its weakening begins rapid reproduction of the fungus, which leads to the occurrence of the disease.
The most common forms of candidiasis are   vaginal   and oral .
Vaginal candidiasis is a female form, and the disease can occur at almost any age.
Oral candidiasis is usually found in infants, most often in newborns.
Candidiasis is also found in men, most often after unprotected intercourse.


Causes of candidiasis

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Many factors can provoke an intensive reproduction of a fungus. For example, hypothermia, illness, stress, hormonal changes (during pregnancy or taking hormonal drugs).
When taking antibiotics, along with pathogenic bacteria, the beneficial microflora of the intestine and vagina, which controls the growth and development of Candida fungi, also dies . The presence of a chronic disease that reduces the activity of the immune system (HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, infections) very often causes candidiasis.
Endocrine diseases ( diabetes ,   obesity , dysfunction of the thyroid gland).
Finally, a hot climate or wearing uncomfortable cramped or synthetic underwear can be a cause of candida.


Symptoms of candidiasis


Manifestations depend on the localization of the disease.
Candidosis of the oral mucosa   (oral candidiasis, children’s thrush) is most common in children, as a rule, they are infected from the mother through the birth canal. At the same time, the mucous membrane of the cheeks, the pharynx, tongue and gums become red, puffiness appears, then foci of white cheeky plaque appear on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity. Over time, their number increases, forming films. Under the coating detected erosion. In chronic candidiasis, the mucous membranes of the nose, lips, pharynx and esophagus can be affected.
 
Vaginal candidiasis   (vaginal candidiasis) is most common in women of reproductive age, but can occur in girls and even in men. In this case, the female vagina and external genital organs are affected, in men, the glans penis and the foreskin. In pregnant women, candidiasis occurs 2-3 times more often due to the increased level of sex hormones and weakened immunity.
Symptoms of candidiasis in women:

  • redness and swelling of the mucous membranes of the genital organs
  • burning and itching, worse in the evening, with hypothermia, with untimely hygiene, before or after menstruation
  • rich white   discharge of curd consistency with a sour odor and pain and burning during urination
  • discomfort during sexual intercourse

 


Symptoms of candidiasis in men:

  • redness, itching and soreness in the glans penis
  • edema foreskin
  • white cheesy plaque on the head of the penis
  • pain when urinating
  • pain during intercourse
  • Intestinal candidiasis   ( dysbacteriosis ) often accompanies vaginal candidiasis or develops in isolation. Usually, intestinal candidiasis appears after taking antibiotics or transferred intestinal infections. Fungi of the genus Candida settle in the small intestine.


Diagnostics

Contrary to popular belief, the main method for the diagnosis of candidiasis is still a smear microscopy from the affected areas of the mucosa. PCR (DNA – diagnostics), popular recently, as a rule, is poorly suited for the diagnosis of candidiasis.

Laboratory diagnosis of the disease includes:

  • smear microscopy
  • culture diagnostics (seeding)
  • -fermentny immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
  • polymerase chain reaction (PCR)


Candidiasis during pregnancy


Candidiasis occurs frequently in pregnant women, but the effects may be more severe, because approximately 70% of cases of fetal infection. During pregnancy, candidiasis is transmitted in an ascending way and can affect the umbilical cord, skin, mucous membranes, and even entire organs and systems. With severe  sepsis   even the death of the fetus is possible. The situation is often complicated by the fact that during pregnancy, many drugs are contraindicated, so the treatment of candidiasis in pregnancy is carried out according to a special scheme (see paragraph “Treatment of candidiasis in pregnancy”).


Treatment


In the treatment of candidiasis, it is very important to choose the right drugs, depending on the type of fungus (the candida genus includes about 80 species, of which more than 10 can cause disease). Otherwise, the risk of obtaining a drug-resistant strain is high, which makes further treatment difficult. Therefore, home treatment of candidiasis is unacceptable, and folk remedies are effective only in combination with competent drug therapy.
Treatment of candidiasis in women
Usually, with mild candidiasis, local treatment is sufficient. To do this, use antifungal creams, vaginal tablets or suppositories:

  • Clotrimazole (Canison, kandibene, antifungol) – the most used drug
  • Miconazole ( Klion -D)
  • Natamycin
  • Nystatin and others.
  • Candles and creams cure candidiasis in 6-7 days, drugs of a new generation – in 1-2 days.

The course of treatment for a full guarantee of recovery is repeated twice. After applying local remedies, it is necessary to be at rest for 30 minutes, for greater effectiveness of the drug. Therefore, candles and vaginal tablets are best used at night.

Partner recommendations

According to modern standards, the treatment of thrush (vaginal candidiasis) should be carried out in two stages. The first stage uses the system (capsules, tablets)   and / or local (vaginal suppositories, gels and tablets)   antifungal drugs, often used complex drugs containing antifungal and antibacterial component to destroy pathogens. The second step is to restore the local immunity and the balance of beneficial vaginal microflora of the vagina to reduce the risk of re-exacerbation. If you do not make a rapid recovery of lactoflora , activation of conditionally pathogenic or pathogenic microorganisms is possible, which may cause recurrence of thrush or bacterial infections. Frequent relapses of thrush often cause chronic inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs, which subsequently lead to impaired reproductive function of women (infertility). That is why two-stage therapy is a more reasonable solution compared with regular use of antimicrobial agents only. To restore the microflora used local probiotics. Many doctors prefer the French drug Laktozhinal . It is the only drug registered on the territory of the Russian Federation – tribiotic with the direct indication “prevention of vulvovaginal candidiasis ” (thrush). Lactozinal contains special lactobacilli, contributes to the normalization of beneficial vaginal microflora and pH , and also forms local immunity. An important aspect is the long-term preservation of the correct   microflora balance and reducing the risk of disease recurrence.

Two-stage therapy with probiotics, for example, the drug Lactozinal   as a stage 2, it has recently become the gold standard for treating conditions involving pathological secretions, such as vulvovaginal candidiasis (thrush) and bacterial vaginosis. Many experts believe that only such a method can provide a pronounced and long-lasting therapeutic effect and strengthen local immunity.


Instead of drugs for the topical treatment or in conjunction with prescribed a single reception of fluconazole (Diflucan, Flucostat, Forkan, mikomaks et al.) Dose of 150mg vnutr.Esli woman case of recurrence of infection, candida treatment is aimed not only to have to remove the symptoms of the disease, but and subsequent prophylaxis.
In addition to local treatment necessarily prescribed drugs for oral administration. It is important to select them individually, given the resistance of a particular type of mushroom. For relapses, it is prescribed local preparations (suppositories or vaginal tablets with clotrimazole ) 1 time per week for several months and fluconazole 100 mg orally once a week for several months. A regular follow up with a doctor is required.
To maintain immunity, it is recommended to increase the consumption of bifidobacteria and limit irritating foods.
At the time of treatment of candidiasis, it is necessary to abandon sexual contact.
Treatment in men


Most often, for the treatment of candidiasis in men enough local antifungal agents. Assign ointment or creams with clotrimazole , twice a day for a week. If the treatment is ineffective, additionally use drugs of general effect. Sexual contact at the time of treatment is also excluded.
Candidiasis during pregnancy
During pregnancy, many drugs for the treatment of candidiasis ( fluconazole , clotrimazole ) are contraindicated due to side effects. Possible to receive nystatin and pimafucin . The latter is not toxic even in high doses.
Candidiasis in children
In children of small age in the treatment of candidiasis a great role is played by proper nutrition with a sufficient amount of vitamins. The affected areas are treated with an aqueous solution of brilliant green, Castellani liquid ( fucorcin ), Mikoseptin , nystatin ointment, solutions of tannin and iodolipol are used . In severe cases, treatment with nystatin .
Treatment of folk remedies
Need to remember that   traditional medicine is effective only with complex therapy . 

Vaginal douching and mouth rinsing with herbs are a good anti-inflammatory effect:

  • Collection number 255:
  • Juniper ordinary (berries) – 1 part
  • Yarrow (grass) – 1 part
  • Salvia officinalis (leaf) – 1 part
  • Eucalyptus Prune (leaf) – 1 part
  • Chamomile (flowers) – 1 part
  • Calendula officinalis (flowers) – 1 part
  • Hanging birch (buds) – 1 part
  • Black poplar (kidney) – 1 part
  • For use, 2 tablespoons of the collection pour a glass of boiling water, insist for 12 hours and take 100-150 ml for a day 30 minutes before meals, or used for douching and rinsing the mouth.
  • Broth roots wormwood ordinary: 20gr roots pour a glass of boiling water, take 1 tablespoon 3 times a day
  • Decoction of Hypericum grass: 2-4 tablespoons of grass, pour 2 liters of water, boil for 20 minutes, drain. Use for douching


Complications of candidiasis


With timely treatment, candidiasis does not cause special harm to health. But the symptoms of candidiasis can deliver a lot of discomfort. Long-existing, it can lead to damage to other organs, most often the urethra, bladder and kidneys. In severe cases, the progressive disease can affect the reproductive organs, leading to infertility in both men and women. But candidiasis is the greatest danger for pregnant women, because very high risk of injury to the fetus.


Prevention

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Prevention of candidiasis includes limiting contact with the carriers of the disease, careful hygiene measures, monitoring with antibiotics, taking probiotics if necessary, wearing cotton underwear, avoiding casual sex, and timely treatment of diseases of the genitourinary system.
With timely treatment, the prognosis is favorable, cure usually occurs within a week. With complicated forms and lesions of the internal organs, the treatment of candidiasis is difficult.

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