Stomatitis

The reasons

Types of stomatitis

Symptoms of stomatitis

Diagnostics

Stomatitis treatment

Complications and prognosis

Stomatitis is called inflammation in the mucous membranes of the mouth in children and adults. They arise due to various reasons.

When stomatitis is characterized by redness, swelling, formed areas of eroded surface or sores, vesicles rash. More often stomatitis develops in children, in adults it occurs most often as a secondary process.

The reasons

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Stomatitis can be primary, as an independent pathology, and secondary, as one of the manifestations of various diseases of a general nature.

One of the symptoms of stomatitis is:

  • as a sign of immunodeficiency,
  • one of the manifestations of scleroderma, 
  • in case of systemic streptoderma, 
  • with pemphigus. 

It is important to note that frequent episodes of stomatitis, its multiple foci indicate the above-described diseases.

Stomatitis as an independent pathology may result from:

  • injury, mechanical damage to the mucous membranes of the sharp edges of the teeth during their spalling, solid food, dentures, toys (in children).
  • Burn damage to hot liquids or food.
  • allergic reaction to taking medicines, toothpastes and rinses, filling and other dental materials,
  • infections of the oral cavity and mucous membranes. Such stomatitis include candidal (fungal), herpetic lesion, less often there are lesions caused by opportunistic flora of the mouth.

Contribute to the development of stomatitis, oral hygiene, inadequate care, frequent respiratory diseases, diabetes, allergies of various origins.   

Types of stomatitis

By type of pathogen, stomatitis can be divided into:

  • viral,
  • microbial,
  • somatic.

By origin share:

  • candidal,
  • herpetic,
  • aphthous stomatitis,
  • allergic stomatitis,
  • Vincent’s stomatitis (necrotic lesion).

Symptoms of stomatitis

Common symptoms of stomatitis include

  • violation of the integrity of the oral mucosa,
  • discomfort, burning,
  • formation of sores, bubbles, erosions,
  • eating pains
  • and also a different degree of the general manifestations from the insignificant indisposition to temperature increase and a serious condition.

Aphthous stomatitis is often a kind of marker of digestive diseases and seasonal allergies, therefore, it is necessary to look for the true cause of the manifestations in the oral cavity.  

With catarrhal (superficial) stomatitis, there is redness, swelling and soreness of the mucous membranes, the process of eating is especially painful, salivation increases (the amount of saliva), gums can bleed, there is a foul smell from the mouth. Sometimes on the surface of the zone of inflammation may occur white-yellow plaque.

The ulcerative form of stomatitis occurs with the progression of catarrhal or as a separate form. Ulcers on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity from small to large and deep, with a coating on the surface. The body temperature is increased, lymph nodes are sharply increased and painful. General weakness and headaches are expressed.

Vincent’s stomatitis or necrotic lesion is an infection of the oral cavity with a complex of two pathogens ( Bacillus fusiformis and Borellia vincentii ). This form of stomatitis usually occurs during periods of sharp decline in immunity, hypovitaminosis, then erosion and ulcers occur in the oral cavity, the general state of health is disturbed. There is a fever. The gums become bleeding and painful, a putrid odor arises from the mouth. Primary ulcers form around the edge of the gums, gradually moving to all the mucous membranes. 

Aphthous stomatitis is manifested by the formation of mucosal single or multiple aft (round or oval sores). They are sharply separated from healthy tissues by an inflammatory corolla, on the center of the aphthous plaque is yellow or dirty gray. Expressed intoxication syndrome and fever, pain in the mouth. On the place of healing aft can remain scars.

Herpetic stomatitis mainly affects children, it begins abruptly with high fever and impaired well-being. Redness of mucous membranes, swelling and small point hemorrhages occur in the oral cavity, gums are bleeding. There may be hypersalivation and bad breath. After a couple of days on the mucous membranes are formed plaques in the form of a group of bubbles with liquid inside, quickly opening and forming zones of necrosis.

In children, the manifestations of stomatitis are usually more pronounced than in adults, are accompanied by general symptoms, disturb nutrition and sleep, and cause severe pain, which makes it difficult to process the oral cavity.

Herpetic and aphthous stomatitis is more severe. In adults, stomatitis often has localized forms and common manifestations are not significant.

Diagnostics

The basis of the diagnosis is an examination of the dentist and the identification of obvious signs of stomatitis. Sometimes for detection of candidiasis or herpes, the study is supplemented with laboratory tests – baccose , PCR smear. For persistent stomatitis, a blood test for glucose is necessary and consultation with a therapist or pediatrician.    

It is important to distinguish between aphthous and herpetic stomatitis, and even the doctors themselves often confuse them. This is necessary for proper treatment. The remaining forms are treated according to the general principle.

Stomatitis treatment

The basis of the treatment of any form of stomatitis is anesthesia and removal of inflammation. First of all, apply oral irrigation or application of local anesthetics. It is especially important to treat the oral cavity for children before eating.

To stimulate healing and combat microbial infection, grass solutions ( oak bark, lime blossom, chamomile, cilantrose, calendula decoction), furacillin solution or miramistina are used.

In the viral nature of stomatitis, antiviral ointments are used.

In order to create a protective film over the sores, Vaseline, rosehip oil or sea buckthorn, aloe juice are used. They help in the regeneration of the epithelium.

Fungal stomatitis used antifungal drugs – Candida for localized treatment, miramistin, Geksoral.

Physiotherapy, vitamin therapy and immunotherapy are used for the general treatment of stomatitis.

Complications and prognosis

Usually stomatitis passes without any complications, but in severe cases there may be generalization of the process, the accession of a secondary infection. In general, the prognosis for stomatitis is favorable. They pass without a trace.

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