Endocrinology is a complex area of medicine that is closely related to many other areas. In many ways, it intersects with gynecology. After all, female genitals are also a source of hormones and may not work properly, with disruptions of a different nature. As a result, some symptoms appear that reduce the quality of life and force a woman to visit a doctor.
One of the young specialties in modern medicine is a gynecologist-endocrinologist. There are not so many doctors in this area, however, in private clinics you can meet them more often.
A gynecologist-endocrinologist is a doctor who is familiar not only with the peculiarities of the female genital organs, but also with the peculiarities of the endocrine system. Given that sexual function in women is strongly tied to the activity of the endocrine glands, this combination is very rational and allows the gynecologist to achieve a greater percentage of recovery.
A gynecologist-endocrinologist, unlike a simple gynecologist, is well-informed not only about organs that perform both sexual and endocrine functions, but also simply about the endocrine system, malfunctions in which can affect women’s fertility and other sexual functions. After all, improper work of the adrenal glands, and irrational production of thyroid hormones can lead to the fact that a woman will have problems in the genital area.
A women gynecologist-endocrinologist usually receives an appointment who could not be helped by an ordinary gynecologist. That is, these women have neither a tumor in the reproductive organs, no adhesions, nor any inflammatory processes or erosions, but for some reason there are complaints. And the task of the gynecologist-endocrinologist is to exclude endocrine pathologies that can affect the reproductive organs of the patient who has applied to them.
Many women delay in referring to an endocrinologist or gynecologist-endocrinologist. This is due to the fact that it is rather difficult to suspect deviations from the norm, especially if the patient does not have the habit of carefully monitoring her health. In this case, there is a chance to ignore the first warning signs. Especially often ignoring occurs due to the fact that in the initial stages the symptoms of endocrinological disorders are nonspecific, unable to cause anxiety, if you do not evaluate them thoughtfully.
Symptoms that should alert
Doctors call a series of symptoms, in which the woman is advised to consult a doctor for advice. As a result of the consultation, the changes that occur with the body can be recognized as a variant of the norm, and a disease that requires medical correction can be detected.
The symptoms with which patients most often find themselves at a medical reception are as follows:
- weight change without objective reasons and cardinal changes in the diet (there can be both a sharp increase in the weight index and, on the contrary, its decrease);
- failures in the menstrual cycle (menstruation is too frequent or too rare, too abundant or, on the contrary, very scarce);
- increased signs of premenstrual syndrome, if a woman suffers from it, or their appearance, if they were not previously observed;
- definition of cystic formations in the mammary glands;
- the appearance of problems with the skin (excessive dryness or, conversely, oiliness, a large number of rashes resembling acne);
- the appearance of male hair distribution;
- reducing the level of sexual desire to the minimum;
- severe hair loss until complete baldness;
- increase muscle mass without significant training;
- miscarriage or even the inability to conceive a child.
Any of these symptoms that has appeared recently or has existed for a long time is a serious reason to visit an endocrinologist or an endocrinologist-gynecologist. After all, the more pathology is launched, the harder it can be treated.
Endocrinological diseases that occur in women are mainly associated with fluctuations in the level of female sex hormones. This group includes:
Estrogens (estradiol, estrone, estriol , etc.)
Ensure the correct functioning of not only the sexual, but also the cardiovascular , nervous, bronchopulmonary and other systems. Protect the body of a woman from a large number of different diseases, and the age-related drop in their level leads to the development of menopause.
Reducing the level of estrogen threatens a woman with a loss of fertility, the development of osteoporosis, hypothyroidism, depressive conditions, etc. An excess of estrogen also does not affect the body positively. A woman may notice mood swings, the appearance of cysts in the mammary glands, lengthening and strengthening the profusion of the menstrual cycle, etc.
Progestins ( progesterone )
They belong to the group of pregnancy hormones, ensuring conception and childbearing. Normally they contribute to the fixation of the egg in the uterus, ensure the release of milk by the mammary glands, prepare the muscles for the upcoming labor.
The lack of gestagen leads to the fact that the woman suffers from painful menstruation, uterine bleeding outside the menstrual cycle. Also at the onset of pregnancy increases the risk of miscarriage or perenasheniya fetus, underdevelopment of the fetus. Excess gestagen is also dangerous at high risk of bleeding outside the cycle, the development of a corpus luteum cyst, impaired kidney function.
Gonadotropic hormones ( luteinizing and follicle-stimulating )
Produced by the pituitary gland, are responsible for the regulation of the sex glands. With fluctuations in their level, problems are possible with the onset of pregnancy, the menstrual cycle. An excess and deficiency of these hormones can also contribute to the development of tumor diseases.
A hormone produced in the pituitary gland and acting on the mammary glands. It activates the production of milk after birth. Scientists know that receptors for prolactin exist in other organs, but their function has not yet been established there. Excess prolactin leads to the appearance of milk outside the breastfeeding period.
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Endocrine diseases characteristic of the fair sex are associated with impaired production of sex hormones.
Violations of puberty
There are quite rare, often characterized by the presence of failures even at the level of the genetic code. The woman may experience too rapid or, on the contrary, too slow sexual development. Perhaps the appearance of girls during puberty secondary sexual characteristics. Diagnosis is based on the assessment of sex hormone levels. Treatment is mainly medicamentous with hormone replacement therapy.
Amenorrhea primary and secondary
Rather a symptom than a full-fledged disease. It occurs today quite often and is characterized by the absence of menstruation in the fair sex. It happens primary, when menstruation has never been at all, since puberty, and secondary, when menstruation was, but then stopped for any reason. Amenorrhea can be caused by secondary hermaphroditism, congenital adrenogenital syndrome, anorexia, and a number of other diseases. Treatment is based on the correction of the underlying pathology.
Very diverse. Menstruation can be shorter than three days, and then they talk about oligomenorrhea ( physiological or pathological ), maybe more than seven days, and then the pathology is called polymenorrhea , etc. To determine the cause of the failure, sex hormones are given, correction is also carried out with the help of hormone medications.
An excess of prolactin, leading to a lack of menstruation, a liquid resembling milk from the mammary glands. It occurs infrequently. Treatment is based on prolactin antagonist drugs.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (SKPYA)
Characterized by the production in the ovaries of a large number of male sex hormones. Diagnosed by evaluating the hormonal profile, as well as using ultrasound. It occurs quite often. The treatment is mostly conservative.
Female sex hormones are responsible in the body for a large number of functions. It is not surprising that the violation of their production leads to failures in many organs and systems at once.