Cervical erosion is a chronic inflammation of the cervix area.
There are 2 types:
Pseudo-erosion of the cervix (ectopia) – one of the
most common gynecological diseases, occurs as a result of displacement of the
epithelium uncharacteristic of the cervix from the internal orifice of the
uterus to the outside, as if twisting the cervix.
Most often occurs in women from 18 to 30-35 years.
True erosion (is rare) – exposure as a result of injury or infection of the epithelium with the formation of inflammatory and bleeding surface.
- violation of the microflora of the vagina,
- inflammation in the cervix and genital area in general,
- sexually transmitted diseases ( chlamydia or ureaplasma ),
- cervical trauma during labor or abortion ,
- menstrual disorders with hormonal disruptions,
- reduced immunity.
The second main point in the development of erosion is called the early start of intimate relationships. The final formation and maturity of the sexual sphere of a woman takes place by the age of twenty, and if, during early sexual intercourse, infections of the vagina and neck join, then erosion is almost inevitable.
The disease is dangerous in that it is the background for the development of cancer pathology in the cervical area, against the background of the existing erosion, the risk increases dramatically.
Erosion is considered benign process of transformation of cells in the area of the cervix. At the same time, according to the subjective sensations, the woman has no complaints, less often there are not enough transparent vaginal discharge.
Erosion of the cervix is usually detected on a routine examination in the gynecologist’s office. When this occurs, the replacement of the normal epithelium in the area of the vaginal part of the cervix to the epithelium from the cervical canal. The doctor will see it at colposcopy .
Erosion of the cervix is always a clear boundary, there are inflammatory changes of different degrees. When it is detected, a special study is always carried out on the presence of oncology, since the junction of two epithelia (the border of erosion) is often the site for the transformation of cells into cancer cells.
If cervical erosion is detected or suspected, it is necessary to undergo examination by a gynecologist. Erosion is usually treated actively, but before treatment also requires the passage of a full range of tests.
The list includes
- smear on flora,
- tests for the detection of latent infection by PCR.
In addition, it is necessary to sow microflora of the vagina and perform a PAP test, determining atypical cells. If necessary, a modified cervical fragment biopsy is also performed.
If erosion occurs in young women, if there are no complications, you can try conservative treatment techniques.
At the initial stages of treatment, baths with herbs are used, homeopathy, and preparations for suppressing negative flora (usually candles with antimicrobial or antifungal components — terzhinan, hexicon, livarol).
After carrying out such methods of treatment, with their ineffectiveness during one to three menstrual cycles, the modified tissues are removed by various more active and aggressive methods.
Usually, coagulation (exposure to cells by different methods, with the purpose of their death and rejection) of the altered tissue is carried out in order to prevent its transformation.
- Chemical coagulation with application of special drugs to the erosion
zone. This removes only the cylindrical epithelium, the flat remains
intact and quickly replaces the damaged areas. This method is the least traumatic.
Indications: the size of the erosion of up to 1-2 cm in the uterus.
Several procedures are required, healing may be incomplete, depending on the characteristics of the organism.
Contraindications to it are large sizes of erosion.
- Radio wave cauterization is a non-contact method of
treatment. Modified cells are not cauterized, but rather evaporate, giving
space to the normal epithelium. Therefore, after such an operation, there
is a minimum of side effects of the operation.
Indications: cauterization in nonparturiating women.
The method is painless and quick, no scar is formed, blood-like discharge is acceptable.
- Cryodestruction method (freezing with liquid
nitrogen). Freezing method with subsequent rejection of erosion
cells. The healing time of the treated area to 4-6 weeks.
Indications – cauterization of large areas in women giving birth.
The site is chosen purposefully, without damaging healthy tissue, a scar is not formed. The procedure is painless, but unpleasant for the sensations, pulls the stomach. Lasts no more than 10 minutes.
Side effects can be abundant discharge, dizziness after the procedure, prolonged healing.
- Laser coagulation method (cauterization with a laser beam). The site
is chosen purposefully, without damaging healthy tissue, a scar is not
formed. The procedure is painless, but unpleasant for the sensations,
pulls the stomach. Lasts no more than 10 minutes.
It can be carried out as giving birth, so and not giving birth to women.
Contraindications – deep and extensive erosion.
When carrying out laser therapy, erosion does not always pass, but it significantly decreases. The method is quite expensive.
- Often used diathermocoagulation, cauterization of
erosion by electric current, causing burns at the site of contact.
It is carried out only to women giving birth.
Contraindications: this is a method that is often used, but it should be avoided, especially if you are planning a birth. He severely injures the cervix. The method is painful, accompanied by contractions of the uterus, accompanied by an unpleasant odor. Heals the scar for a long time, there may be discharge, weakness, backache hurts.
Many women are afraid or too lazy to treat cervical erosion, meanwhile – it is not harmless to the body of a woman. Not only is it a hotbed of chronic infection that can lead to disastrous consequences, such as miscarriage or infertility. The presence of cervical erosion is a time bomb. There is always a risk that the cells of the ectopic epithelium will be reborn into cancer cells – then there will be a need to remove the uterus with appendages and prolonged chemotherapy.
Treatment of erosion in the advanced stage is always long, traumatic and problematic. When cauterizing the neck, it is injured, which can not but affect the reproductive function in the future. There may be problems when carrying a child.
That is why developed countries, after 30 years, offer all women to undergo regular examinations with a simple test – a cervical smear Pap test. A smear is stained with a special substance and examined under a microscope. If there are cells suspicious for cancer, a more detailed and in-depth treatment is carried out to identify and quickly cure the problem.