Mastodynia is subjectively unpleasant sensations in the area of the mammary gland, a feeling of puffiness, soreness and soreness, increased sensitivity when touched.
Syndrome mastodynia occurs as one of the manifestations premenstrual syndrome, may be one of the signs of pregnancy, neurosis, a sign of admission to puberty in girls, and may occur independently as a result of various disorders of the body.
At least once in a life each woman meets this phenomenon. Up to 50% of women notice masthodia symptoms every month. It causes psychological and physical discomfort, impairs performance and personal relationships, and can lead to stress.
There are a lot of reasons for the development of mastodynia, the main ones are:
- sharp hormonal fluctuations during puberty, pregnancy, menopause,
- inflammatory processes in the breast area (non-infectious or purulent mastitis),
- benign or malignant tumors of the gland (adenoma, cancer),
- injuries, surgery on the gland, including breast surgery,
- manifestations of premenstrual syndrome,
- medical abortions, artificial childbirth,
- taking oral contraceptives, ovulation stimulants or diuretics,
- large breast size with improper underwear,
- reflected pains in myalgia, osteochondrosis, intercostal neuralgia, cardiac pain,
- diseases of the liver and kidneys, metabolic disorders (especially associated with fat metabolism),
- stress and neurosis.
By reason of occurrence, it is possible to conditionally divide mastodynia into:
- physiological (puberty, pregnancy, menopause),
- pathological (symptom of diseases of the chest or neighboring organs).
By the nature of occurrence can be identified cyclic mastodynia (occurs regularly, associated with the phases of the menstrual cycle) and non-cyclic (occurs without a certain periodicity).
The basis for the development of mastodynia is an imbalance of the hormones of the body, or psycho-emotional disorders that also indirectly affect the level of hormones.
Mastodynia can be formed as a result mastopathy – cystic or fibrous degeneration of the glandular tissue (with the formation of tissue seals).
When the cyclic form occurs fluid retention in the gland tissue with its swelling and compression of the nerve trunks. Impulses are perceived as painful. Also important role played by the production of biologically active substances – histamine and serotonin , which increase the unpleasant manifestations.
Typically, cyclic pain occurs in direct connection with the menstrual cycle, more often in its second phase. This is due to a shortage progesterone or over production estrogen. Arises
- pulling or aching, pressing pain in the chest,
- breast enlargement in size, swelling,
- increased sensitivity of the nipple and breast tissue, discomfort when touched.
- sensations arise in both breasts,
- average age of manifestations from 20 to 40 years.
In the non-cyclic form of mastodynia, manifestations occur without regard to the cycle. When this occurs:
- chest pain from mild to burning,
- pain arises by periods or lasts constantly,
- usually the pain is one-sided, local – a woman can clearly indicate her part,
- there may be discharge from the nipple,
- sometimes redness occurs
- no swelling of the breast and increase its sensitivity,
- age of occurrence on average after 40 years.
The danger of mastodnia is that it can be the first sign of breast growths or tissue inflammation. Often mastodynia masks other somatic diseases.
With symptoms of mastodynia, it is necessary to conduct a thorough examination and palpation of the breast, a detailed inquiry of the woman about the manifestations.
Are held general blood analysis and blood to the level of sex hormones ( estrogens, progesterone and testosterone ).
It is necessary to conduct an ultrasound examination of the gland, mammography (x-ray of the mammary gland in special projections) and in case of suspected tumor processes – biopsy of the gland tissue.
Gynecologists and mammologists are engaged in the diagnosis and treatment of mastodynia. In the overwhelming majority of cases, when the causative factor is removed, the pain disappears without treatment. If necessary, appointed by:
- change of linen for more physiological,
- the use of anti-inflammatory and analgesics – nurofen, paracetamol, ketonal.
- the use of herbal preparations – cyclodinone, mastodinone,
- the use of combined oral contraceptives as a correction for menstruation and related manifestations,
- phytotherapy with herbs that have a decongestant and anti-inflammatory effect (red clover, peony, thistle, burdock root, string, stinging nettle).
- in order to remove puffiness and discomfort, it is necessary to correct the daily regimen and nutrition, eliminating or sharply reducing the amount of salt, spicy and spicy seasonings,
- sedation is necessary to relieve tension
- Vitamin therapy is not superfluous.
In case of tumor and cystic processes, abscesses, the question of surgical removal of formations with the subsequent therapy is resolved.
In most cases, the prognosis for mastodynia is favorable, with medical correction, the pain is completely eliminated. In cases of development of tumor processes, the prognosis depends on the type of neoplasm.