Ovarian cyst

Types of ovarian cysts and their causes

Symptoms of ovarian cysts


Ovarian cyst and pregnancy

Ovarian cyst – abdominal formation of the ovary containing fluid. 

The ovary is a paired internal organ of a woman that performs hormonal and reproductive function. In the ovaries are eggs. At reproductive age, they mature one per month with access through the fallopian tubes to the uterus. Unfortunately, the appearance of ovarian cysts is characteristic of women of childbearing age.

There are different types of cysts. So, there is an absolutely harmless ovarian cyst (functional) that can appear and disappear without medical treatment and intervention. But there are types of cysts that represent a real threat and danger to women’s health. They affect the reproductive function of a woman, that is, her ability to become pregnant and endure this pregnancy (with prolonged or postponed treatment). 

Types of ovarian cysts and their causes

A safe ovarian cyst (functional) appears as a result of the preparation of a woman’s body for the release of a mature egg (ovulation) from the ovary.

Pathological ovarian cyst occurs most often as a result of a stable hormonal imbalance in the event of ovarian malfunction.

Functional cyst

One of the most common types is a functional ovarian cyst. The ovaries are so arranged that they are initially predisposed to the formation of cysts, especially during ovulation. Oocytes are located in special cavities of the ovary, called follicles. Often, due to certain disruptions in the body of a woman, several follicles begin to ripen at the same time in the ovary. In the case of a pathological menstrual cycle, a cyst called a functional cyst forms in the follicle.

This is a safe education that does not require treatment and active intervention. Enough simple observation. Such a cyst does not manifest itself and with time, within two or three cyclic changes (menstrual cycles), it resolves and leaves without a trace. Functional ovarian cyst is most common in women of reproductive age.

Other types of cysts

In addition to functional, there are a number of other types of ovarian cysts that can cause complications and require medical or surgical treatment. 

  • Dermoid ovarian cyst is the most common cyst, the cavity of which is filled with tissues that are not characteristic of the ovaries. The most common cysts with skin tissue and bone tissue.
  • Endometrioid ovarian cyst is the second most common. It’s all a little more complicated. Endometrioid tissue is the tissue of the uterine mucosa. Accordingly, this cyst is characterized by the appearance of uterine mucosal tissues in its cavity. The second, its unofficial name – “chocolate”, because of the dark red color of the blood that fills the cavity of the cyst. 
  • Polycystic ovarian disease – many small cysts on the surface of the ovaries. 

Symptoms of ovarian cysts

In most cases, the symptoms of ovarian cysts are manifested implicitly: sometimes there is pain in the abdomen or pressure is felt on the abdomen. There are cases when there was pain during sexual contact. In such cases, you should seek medical help, and if you experience severe pain, immediate hospitalization is necessary.

Abdominal pressure and pain may be caused by the following factors:

  • the occurrence of bleeding or rupture of a cyst;
  • large size cysts;
  • twisting the cyst, disrupting the flow of blood to it.

The most common symptom of the disease is the occurrence of irregular painful periods, usually coming late. An increase in the size of the abdomen or its swelling may also indicate the appearance or abnormal development of an ovarian cyst.

Since in most cases are asymptomatic cyst ovary develops, the only way of its diagnosis at an early stage is an ultrasonic inspection ( ultrasonic ) pelvis. which must be held once a year.


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Treatment regimens for ovarian cysts depend on a number of factors, such as its type and size, the state of health of the woman and her age, future plans for the offspring, the presence of symptoms and the severity of the disease. It is clear that the sooner it is detected, the easier, faster and more effective the treatment will be.

There are several treatment regimens for the disease, based on the symptoms and results of diagnosis:

  • Observation – when an ovarian cyst is detected and there are no complaints from a woman, the doctor observes the patient several menstrual cycles for accurate diagnosis and tactics for further treatment. In the case of a functional cyst, this is sufficient, since very often it resolves itself.
  • Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory treatment regimen.
  • Hormone therapy normalizes and stabilizes the hormones of a woman. Very often, one of the treatment points is the admission of a woman to oral contraceptives, which have not only a therapeutic effect, but also a preventive one. In women taking hormonal pills, the risk of not only the appearance of new cysts, but also the appearance of malignant tumors is reduced.
  • Surgery – they resort to it in case of acute forms of a cyst, in case of impossibility or low effectiveness of treatment by the methods described above.

Ovarian cyst and pregnancy

With a favorable outcome of treatment, reproductive function is not impaired – provided that there are no other disorders in the female reproductive system. In addition, during surgery, it is possible to eliminate not only the main problem, but also concomitant pathology (check the level of patency of the fallopian tubes, split adhesions, etc.). 

Modern medicine allows you to do surgery with minimal trauma to the tissues of the abdominal cavity. Such operations are called laparoscopic. In addition to minimal injuries, they reduce the patient’s adaptation time after surgery, reduce the risk of complications and adhesions.

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