Vacuum abortion is done in up to 12 weeks:
- up to 5 weeks, it is possible to carry out the so-called vacuum mini-abortion – on an outpatient basis without cervical dilatation.
- From 6 to 12 weeks vacuum abortion is performed in the hospital using anesthesia.
To terminate a pregnancy using this method, a vacuum apparatus is used with which the fertilized egg is sucked from the uterus area. This method is less traumatic compared to a surgical abortion, since it requires minimal intervention in the woman’s body, which reduces the likelihood of damage to the uterus and the appearance of bleeding.
An alternative to vacuum aspiration is a medical abortion.
- For a period of up to 12 weeks, a woman may terminate a pregnancy on her own initiative.
- Also, the doctor may recommend aborting the pregnancy on the basis of medical indications.
The main reasons that impede a vacuum abortion are the following:
- gestation period exceeds 12 weeks;
- 6 months after the previous pregnancy was terminated;
- the presence of foci of purulent infection, regardless of their location in the orgizm women;
- inflammatory diseases of the genital organs;
- acute infectious diseases.
- To confirm uterine pregnancy, blood is donated to determine hCG – a hormone that increases hundreds of times during pregnancy.
- Then, an ultrasound is performed ( ultrasound ), which is used to determine the position of the fertilized egg and thereby eliminate ectopic pregnancy.
- Next, take a smear on the degree of purity of the vagina. If inflammations are detected, vaginal debridement is obligatory – antiseptic treatment.
- General analysis of blood and urine, blood type and Rh factor, blood for HIV, hepatitis and syphilis.
- With a period of more than 6 weeks, ECG is required, because the procedure will be under anesthesia.
- If the patient has comorbidities, additional tests may be prescribed.
- If the pregnancy is terminated without evidence on the initiative of the woman, a conversation with a psychologist is scheduled.
Mini abortion with a gestation period of not more than 5 weeks
It is performed using local anesthesia on an outpatient basis, i.e. After the procedure, the patient goes home.
Local anesthesia involves the introduction of an anesthetic drug in the cervical tissue. In addition, 30–40 minutes before the procedure, the woman was recommended to take the anesthetic drug in pills.
When conducting a mini-abortion, the woman is on the gynecological chair, the cervix is exposed in the mirrors. A special soft catheter is inserted through the cervical canal (without its expansion). Vacuum suction creates a negative pressure in the uterus, which forces the fertilized egg, implanted in the wall of the uterus, to break away from the wall and leave the uterus.
Entering a soft catheter and the absence of mechanical expansion of the cervix minimizes the risk of traumatic effects on the female body. This reduces the risk of infection, damage to the walls of the uterus and subsequent bleeding. The time of a mini-abortion in normal practice does not exceed 10 minutes.
Vacuum abortion for a period of 6 to 12 weeks
Conducted in a gynecological hospital.
The principle of emptying the uterus is the same: a vacuum suction creates a negative pressure in the uterine cavity and sucks its contents. But with such a gestation period, the diameter of the vacuum suction head is already larger, and this requires dilation of the cervix. It is carried out mechanically with the help of metal extenders Gegar and may be accompanied by cervical microtraumas.
A complete vacuum abortion procedure usually lasts about 20 minutes under intravenous anesthesia.
If for some reason the patient cannot be given intravenous general anesthesia, or she herself does not want to completely turn off the mind during the procedure, an alternative anesthetic regimen can be applied. In this case, the doctor prescribes an intramuscular injection of a narcotic analgesic and a sedation medication (soothing, reducing anxiety and pain threshold) 40 minutes before the procedure. Immediately before the manipulation on the gynecological chair, the doctor additionally introduces an anesthetic agent paracervical, that is, in the tissue of the cervix.
Abortion requires the appointment of antibacterial drugs:
- For the prevention of inflammatory complications once a day of the procedure – in patients without risk factors for the addition of infection, examined for the presence of chlamydia (with a negative result).
- The course for 7-10 days – in patients with identified chlamydial or other infection, as well as in the presence of risk factors for the addition of inflammatory complications (with bum vaginosis previously in a smear requiring reconditioning before an abortion, in women with low socioeconomic status).
When an Rh-negative woman’s blood is used during an abortion, a dose of anti-Rh immunoglobulin is recommended to prevent immunization and the development of Rh-conflict during the next pregnancy. This must be done in the event that the partner has Rh-positive blood.
Usually in the hospital the patient is observed during the day after surgery. The next day, examination by a gynecologist eliminates early complications. The patient should be determined with the subsequent method of contraception to avoid repeated unwanted conception. In the absence of contraception, pregnancy may occur within 1-2 months after surgery.
Sex life after an abortion is not recommended for 3 weeks.
For at least 6 months, the development of a new pregnancy cannot be allowed.
If desired, to be protected by oral contraceptives, the patient should take the first pill from the package on the day of the abortion.
The intrauterine device can be inserted during a gynecological examination on the day after the abortion, or during the next normal menstruation.
Spotting may persist for up to 2 weeks. With satisfactory well-being, an ultrasound scan is recommended for 5-7 days from the start of the first post-abortion menstruation. If there are complaints (fever, abdominal pain, bleeding or purulent “leucorrhœa” from the genital tract), the patient should immediately consult a doctor.
- Incomplete abortion is a frequent complication of abortion by the method of vacuum aspiration. It occurs when the fertilized egg is not completely removed from the uterus. This can lead to the development of severe inflammation and require surgical intervention. To prevent incomplete abortion, it is imperative that the procedure be performed under ultrasound control.
- After abortion increases the risk of hormonal disorders – endocrine factor infertility in the future.
- Attaching inflammations and infections often occurs after abortions, because the uterus is traumatized and vulnerable.
Despite the fact that the procedure of vacuum abortion is quite low-impact (especially mini-abortion for up to 5 weeks), we should not forget that this is a side intervention in the woman’s body that cannot be called completely safe.