Enteritis is an acute or chronic inflammation in the small intestine, in which the basic functions of the intestine are disrupted (splitting and absorption of nutrients).
When enteritis is a change in the structure of the mucous membrane, which disrupts the normal synthesis of intestinal juice and the barrier function of the intestinal wall.
Enteritis can be of different origin, but acute and chronic forms can be distinguished by the flow.
Usually, acute enteritis occurs rapidly, with severe symptoms, and chronic ones are usually the outcome of an acute process, improperly treated or neglected. Enteritis occurs at any age, the acute form is more common in young children, chronic enteritis is more common in adults.
Usually acute enteritis is accompanied by the development gastritis (stomach inflammation) or colitis (inflammation of the colon).
Chronic enteritis is associated with diseases of the pancreas or biliary system, metabolic processes or autoimmune pathology, hereditary diseases.
The main causes of acute enteritis include:
- infection with dangerous microbes (cholera bacillus, Salmonella, Escherichia, staphylococcus etc.),
- infection with viral agents ( rotaviruses , enteroviruses),
- allergenic damage to the food and drug plan,
- poisoning by food poisoning (mushrooms, berries, etc.),
- alcohol consumption,
- exposure to heavy metals, chemicals,
- abuse fatty, spicy, spicy, etc.
The main causes of chronic enteritis include:
- intestinal damage by worms,
- giardiasis intestines
- overeating spicy, fatty, coarse foods,
- bad habits (nicotine, alcohol),
- industrial intoxication (heavy metals, chemical compounds, radiation exposure),
- bowel damage due to taking certain medications,
- autoimmune diseases
- hereditary enteropathy and fermentopathy,
- gut surgery.
The development of acute or chronic enteritis is promoted by unhealthy habits, a sedentary lifestyle, problems with the kidneys and blood circulation, abdominal trauma and surgery, adhesions.
- isolated enteritis,
- gastroenteritis in combination with the defeat of the stomach,
- enterocolitis in combination with the defeat of the colon,
- gastroenterocolitis – damage to the stomach and intestines.
Also, according to the degree of spread of inflammation emit:
- total enteritis,
- jejunitis – inflammation of the jejunum,
- ileitis is an inflammation of the ileum of the small intestine.
For reasons of formation can be identified:
- parasitic enteritis,
- infectious (viral and microbial) enteritis,
- medicinal or drug,
- toxic (including radiation),
- arising from congenital anomalies of the structure or operation of enzymes,
You can also divide:
- primary enteritis arising as an independent pathology,
- secondary, arising on the background or as complications of other diseases.
According to the features of the structure and operation of enzymes can be identified:
- atrophic enteritis with focal or total changes,
- non-atrophic enteritis.
By severity can be identified:
- easy form
- moderate form,
- severe form, with or without complications.
Chronic enteritis can be:
- in the acute stage,
- in the stage of incomplete remission,
- in complete remission.
Acute enteritis usually progresses rapidly, but ends quickly.
Enteritis is manifested by the following symptoms:
- loose stools from 1-2 to 10-20 or more times a day,
- nausea and vomiting,
- stomach ache,
- bloating and rumbling in the stomach
- temperature increase from 37 to 39 and more,
- general malaise, headaches,
- in severe diarrhea, signs of dehydration – dry tongue and mucous membranes, weight loss, cramps.
- in severe cases, coagulation, shock and coma disorders.
Chronic enteritis usually gives a variety of clinical symptoms, is not so acute, but sometimes lasts for months.
They are characterized by the following manifestations:
- diarrhea after eating,
- mild pain around navel
- feeling of rumbling and bloating
- increased stools, watery, yellow with food particles,
- defecation can bring discomfort, pressure reduction,
- gradual development anemia , osteoporosis due to impaired mineral absorption,
- the tongue is coated with white bloom with imprints of teeth
- there are signs of hypovitaminosis,
- body weight gradually decreases, dystrophy occurs.
The basis of the diagnosis are complaints and examination with palpation of the abdomen and the study of the nature of the chair. Complement the diagnosis:
- coprogram , feces for intestinal group, virological study.
- tests for hidden blood in feces, the presence carbohydrates .
- general blood analysis with the definition of acute infection, anemia, leukocytosis, acceleration ESR,
- biochemistry blood with signs of protein starvation and micronutrient deficiencies,
- endoscopy of the initial sections of the small intestine,
- X-ray examination with contrast
- Ultrasound of the pancreas and liver for the detection of combined pathology.
Enteritis is mainly treated by infectious disease specialists and gastroenterologists, depending on the reason that caused them.
Acute infectious enteritis is treated in the hospital. If it is a microbial intestinal infection, antibiotics are used, if viral is only a symptomatic treatment:
- diet food – boiled, puree and non-irritating food,
- fighting dehydration by infusing glucose and sodium chloride solutions,
- the fight against toxicosis with hemodez, reopolyglukina,
- enzyme therapy
- sorbent, fixative therapy – smecta, enterosgel, rice water,
- correction of microbial imbalance,
- vitamins and immunotherapy.
In severe cases and in patients with concomitant diseases:
- Norfloxacin 0.4 g 2 times a day for 5-7 days.
- Ciprofloxacin 0.5 g 2 times a day for 5-7 days.
- Ofloxacin 0.2 g 2 times a day for 5-7 days.
- Ceftriaxone 1-2 g once a day for 5-7 days.
Diarrhea with severe signs of inflammation (presence of blood, pus, mucus in feces), accompanied by fever:
- Norfloxacin 0.4 g 2 times a day for 3-5 days.
- Ciprofloxacin 0.5 g 2 times a day for 3-5 days.
- Ofloxacin 0.2 g 2 times a day for 3-5 days.
In the treatment of chronic enteritis tactics is somewhat different:
- the basis of the treatment is the specific diet No. 4 (excluding acute, fatty, irritating, small portions, vegetable and milk table with protein and mineral enrichment, exclusion of coarse fiber),
- further dieting up to life, especially for hereditary defects of the intestinal wall,
- the appointment of enzyme preparations (festal, creon, digestal, sustak),
- the appointment of motor correctors when bloating, nausea, gut hyperpulmonary (imodium, loperamide),
- astringent herbal remedies for persistent diarrhea (cherry fruit, oak bark, St. John’s wort),
- the use of probiotics and biologics (bifidus and lactobacterin, Narine),
- multivitamins, additional appointment of mineral supplements.
The prognosis for the correct treatment of acute enteritis is favorable; for chronic enteritis, the prognosis depends on the cause and degree of intestinal lesions. With a diet and regular treatment, exhaustion and adverse outcomes can be avoided.
With “watery” diarrhea, antibiotic therapy is not indicated. In this case, treatment is based on therapy aimed at maintaining water and electrolyte balance (drinking plenty of saline solution – for example, “rehydron”).