Steatosis or fatty liver, steatosis, chronic reversible process called hepatic dystrophy, which occurs as a result of excessive accumulation of lipids in the liver cells (fats).
The occurrence of fatty hepatosis is directly dependent on a person’s lifestyle, systematic eating disorders, and the abuse of refined and fatty foods. The disease is reversible, with the normalization of nutrition and weight loss, the liver “loses weight” simultaneously with the entire body.
Fatty hepatosis occurs as a result of the influence of alimentary (food) factors. First of all, the main role is played by:
- exposure to systematic alcohol intake,
- ingestion of fatty foods
- excess in the diet of sweet food, transforming into fats,
- vegetarianism, due to carbohydrate metabolism disorder in animal protein deficiency.
It also highlights a lot of factors contributing to the development of fatty hepatosis , they can include a sedentary lifestyle, food semi-finished products and cheap products, diet with subsequent release of them and a sharp overeating, exposure to drugs, toxins or narcotic drugs, diabetes, gout, hypertension and atherosclerosis. In addition, fatty hepatosis of the liver can be one of the symptoms of some hereditary metabolic diseases.
As a result of a metabolic disorder, excessive fat deposition occurs in the liver, while the activity of enzymes that these fats break down is suppressed. As a result, the influx of fat prevails over its splitting, which leads to fatty hepatosis .
According to severity, it is customary to distinguish four stages of liver obesity:
- The initial stage of fatty hepatosis occurs when small droplets of fat accumulate only in individual liver cells.
- Stage 1 is manifested by moderate obesity of the liver, large accumulations of fat droplets inside individual sections of cells.
- Grade 2 gives varying degrees of obesity of almost all liver cells – from small-to-large to large.
- Grade 3 – diffuse spread of large-scale obesity and simultaneous extracellular accumulation of fat, the formation of liver cysts filled with fat.
This pathological process can be completely asymptomatic for a very long time, and it can be detected by screening ultrasound for completely different reasons.
Primary and 1 degree
One of the manifestations of fatty hepatosis can be a constantly fluctuating level of hepatic transaminases – enzymes ALAT and AsAT , they can increase in half of patients with signs of fatty hepatosis . As a result of liver obesity, a sluggish current inflammatory process occurs that leads to the development or cirrhosis of the liver, or even its cancerous degeneration.
If symptoms increase, in patients
- there is a feeling of heaviness in the right hypochondrium,
- discomfort in the abdomen, more on the right side,
- an enlarged liver can be detected with a margin of three to five centimeters protruding its edge,
- An ultrasound will show a density-modified liver with enhanced echogenicity.
- when conducting studies of vessels in the liver, it is clear that the blood flow in it is reduced.
3 degree of fatty hepatosis
Gradually, the disease progresses with symptoms such as
- constant nausea
- pain in the stomach and right side under the ribs, aching or dull persistent nature,
- right side firing
- strong flatulence and constipation,
- violation of food digestion.
The basis of the diagnosis – inspection and palpation of the liver. Research supplemented by data Ultrasound , liver angiography, MRI and survey data of liver enzymes, Alt and AsAT .
It is important to conduct a differential diagnosis of fatty hepatosis with chronic hepatitis of various etiologies, liver cirrhosis,
At statement of the diagnosis it is necessary to exclude viral hepatitis with the help of serological studies.
The diagnosis and treatment of fatty hepatosis is done by a gastroenterologist.
First of all, normalization of lifestyle and diet is necessary to reduce the level of fat in the liver. It is necessary to increase physical activity and fitness, reduce the number of calories consumed while increasing their expenditure, normalize metabolism. It is necessary to achieve a slow weight loss of 0.5 kg weekly.
Diet for fatty hepatosis
The treatment table No. 5 is prescribed with increased protein content, restriction of animal fats and enrichment of food with products that dissolve fats in the liver – cereals, rice, cottage cheese.
It is necessary to increase the number of vegetables, especially with a slight choleretic effect – cabbage of all varieties, carrots, pumpkin. Useful vegetables fresh, boiled and stewed. It is necessary to take protein foods – meat and fish in boiled and stewed form.
It is important to consume at least 2 liters of fluid per day, eat fractional and in small portions.
Useful kefir, sour milk, ryazhenka.
Fat dairy products are limited – milk and cream, cheeses.
Alcohol, carbonated drinks, sweet lemonades, white bread and pastries, sweets and pasta, mayonnaise, sausages and margarine are strictly prohibited.
To a minimum it is necessary to reduce the amount of sugar in the diet.
Fried dishes are unacceptable, broiler chickens are limited to receiving – they contain a lot of harmful substances that load the liver.
Drug therapy for fatty hepatosis includes taking drugs to improve the function of the liver and its cells:
- essential phospholipids ( Esssliver , Essentiale Forte, Berlition ),
- sulfamic acid group (taurine or methionine),
- herbal preparations-hepatoprotectors ( Kars, LIV-52, artichoke extract),
- taking antioxidant vitamins – tocopherol or retinol,
- taking selenium preparations,
- drugs of group B intramuscularly or in tablets.
Phytotherapy has proven itself well – the drugs are used as holagol, gepabene, extracts of turmeric, milk thistle, curly sorrel.
Basically, the prognosis for fatty hepatosis is favorable with timely initiation of treatment and weight loss, the first results of treatment are noticeable after 2-4 weeks, the complete recovery of the liver in a few months is possible.
The basis of the prevention of fatty hepatosis – healthy lifestyle, physical activity, weight control and a balanced diet with a sufficient amount of protein while limiting fats and carbohydrates.