Diarrhea is a syndrome in which the patient has an increase in the frequency of bowel movements, the stool becomes fluid and frequent, sometimes accompanied by bloody discharge. In healthy people, stool frequency is 1-2 times a day or once every two days. The amount of feces in this case is about 300-400 grams per day.
If the symptoms of diarrhea persist for up to 14 days, it is called acute diarrhea. And in the presence of diarrhea for more than two weeks, talking about the development of chronic diarrhea.
The following are the most common causes of diarrhea:
Acute intestinal infections
Acute viral diseases
- rotavirus infection;
- enterovirus infection;
- adenovirus infection.
- ulcerative colitis;
- irritable bowel syndrome;
- oncological diseases of the intestine;
- Crohn’s disease.
Disruption of digestion during
- celiac disease;
- lactose intolerance.
- giardiasis ;
Diarrhea after long-term medication:
- drugs that reduce acidity in the stomach, containing magnesium;
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Travelers’ diarrhea – develops with a sharp change of climate, diet, with a change in water quality.
Of course, the main symptom that unites all these diseases is diarrhea. But with each disease has its own characteristic features of development and additional symptoms. Next, we take a closer look at the most common ones.
Acute intestinal infections (dysentery, salmonellosis, cholera)
Developed by the use of contaminated food or water. Dysentery and salmonellosis develop rapidly with increasing symptoms.
Loose stools can reach 20-30 bowel movements per day. In this case, the patient has pain cramping in the stomach. Signs of intoxication develop. Body temperature rises to febrile numbers (39-40 degrees), and general weakness increases.
After intestinal emptying, there are false urge to defecate accompanied by pain in the rectal area – tenesmus. With an increase in stool frequency, dehydration develops. This is manifested in the dryness of the skin and mucous membrane of the mouth , increased heart rate (tachycardia), lower blood pressure. There is a pronounced general weakness.
The most severe intestinal infection is cholera. Cholera is among the most dangerous infections. With its appearance, a huge number of people fall ill, pandemics develop.
The disease is characterized by acute sudden onset. The patient appears indomitable vomiting, abundant liquid, watery stools. With bowel movements and after no pain in the abdomen. Due to the severity of diarrhea and vomiting, dehydration of the body develops soon, which is accompanied by the appearance of tachycardia, hypotension (lowering of blood pressure), and convulsive syndrome. The disease often proceeds without an increase in temperature. The patient requires emergency medical care and isolation.
Acute respiratory infections
Diarrhea syndrome develops with adenoviral , rotavirus and enterovirus infections. In all these infections, symptoms characteristic of lesions of the respiratory tract develop: the patient has a runny nose, sore throat, cough. Intoxication symptoms appear – fever up to 38.5 degrees, fatigue, headache, body aches.
There is also a development of lesions of the gastrointestinal tract of the type of acute gastroenteritis – there may be vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. The symptoms of gastroenteritis in a patient go away on their own and in the first place are the symptoms of lesions of the upper respiratory tract.
With intestinal diseases – ulcerative colitis , diseases Crohn ‘s bowel disease, an inflammatory process in the mucous membrane develops, erosions and ulcers on the mucous membrane occur. This leads to the exit into the intestinal lumen of the fluid, electrolytes, proteins.
There are persistent abdominal pain, there may be an increase in body temperature up to 37.5-38.0 degrees. Fecal liquid mixed with blood, also noted the appearance of impurities of pus. Due to chronic blood loss, the patient develops anemia (a decrease in hemoglobin ). In the study of the intestine can detect signs of inflammation of the mucous membrane (hyperemia, swelling).
With irritable bowel syndrome no signs of organic bowel damage. An increase in the motor activity of the intestinal wall develops, motility increases. Food passes through the intestines with greater speed and the liquid does not have time to be absorbed into the intestinal walls. This diagnosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, that is, it is made when no other diseases are detected. Often it occurs at a young age, triggered by stress. In addition to diarrhea can be flatulence (bloating), slight abdominal pain.
Disruption of the digestive process
During exacerbations chronic pancreatitis the digestive process is disturbed due to an insufficient amount of pancreatic enzymes. The patient has signs characteristic of pancreatitis – pain in the umbilical region or pain of the girdle character, which can be extremely pronounced. Accompanied by such pains vomiting, which does not bring relief to the patient. Appears liquid, abundant stool, poorly washed off from the walls of the toilet, due to the increased content of fat in the feces ( steatorrhea ). In chronic pancreatitis, diarrhea is also chronic. Symptom aggravation causes noncompliance. Diet for pancreatitis, eating fatty, smoked, spicy, alkogolesoderzhaschih drinks. An ultrasound examines signs of inflammation of the pancreas, an increase in the blood test can be detected amylase, an enzyme responsible for inflammation of the gland.
Celiac disease develops in the absence of an enzyme responsible for the splitting of cereals. Diarrhea is also chronic.
With lactose intolerance there is no lactase enzyme, which is responsible for the digestion of cow’s milk proteins. After eating dairy products diarrhea appears.
In endocrinological diseases, the absorption of fluid and motility of the intestine is disturbed. There is an increase in the rate of passage of food through the intestines and the liquid does not have time to be absorbed into the intestinal mucosa.
With parasitic diseases, the disease develops slowly, with the progression of the process, blood may appear in the feces and abdominal pain.
It develops when changing the diet, water from people traveling to other climatic zones. Stool frequency can reach ten times during the day, moderate abdominal pain may occur. Most often passes within 5-7 days.
Diarrhea after drug use
It is distinguished by the fact that with the elimination of drugs that cause diarrhea, the symptoms disappear independently. You may need to take drugs that restore the intestinal microflora.
Drug treatment of diarrhea is carried out in conjunction with dieting (see below).
If symptoms of diarrhea appear, it is recommended to consult a general practitioner, general practitioner, gastroenterologist to prescribe the necessary treatment.
Sorbent preparations are prescribed – they contribute to the speedy removal of harmful substances from the body.
* First aid for diarrhea – Enterosgel, a preparation in the form of a soft paste with a neutral taste. The delicate structure of this tool does not injure the internal integuments of the stomach and intestines. A porous enterosorbent , like a sponge, absorbs and reliably holds bacteria and particles of harmful substances, ensuring their removal from the body in a natural way. Native GIT microbiome does not suffer, because it is not adsorbed by this drug.
- rehydron – dilute the contents of the package in 1 liter of boiled water, use 1 liter per day until the symptoms are completely eliminated.
When enhancing intestinal motility, antidiarrheal drugs are used:
Antibacterial drugs ( normax , enterofuril ) are used strictly as prescribed by the doctor.
To restore the intestinal microflora is recommended reception:
- bifidumbacterin .
Treatment of diarrhea during pregnancy
When diarrhea during pregnancy, treatment should begin with a diet and take the adsorbents ( smecta , enterosgel ) in the usual dosages.
In the presence of frequent loose stools and vomiting, it is possible to start taking rehydron , in order to avoid the development of dehydration. Recommended administration of drugs reducing the intestinal microflora (bifiform, lineks) in conventional dosages.
Antibacterial drugs are prescribed by a doctor.
In the treatment of diarrhea, a big role is given to diet. In some cases (with lactose intolerance, celiac disease, and pacreatitis ), diarrhea can be eliminated only by dieting.
All measures are aimed at reducing the mechanical and chemical effects on the intestinal mucosa. It is recommended food that is easily absorbed in the intestines.
Should be avoided
- salted, spicy, smoked;
- alkogolesoderzhaschih beverages;
- soda; caffeine containing beverages;
It is recommended to cook food for a couple, bake in the oven or boil.
Well-mashed soups are well digested. For enveloping the mucous recommended the use of jelly, rice decoction. Fresh yeast bread is better to exclude, you can eat bread in dried form (crackers).
When lactase deficiency must exclude dairy products.
Celiac disease excludes products made from barley, oats, rye and wheat.