Glaucoma is an eye disease characterized by an increase in intraocular pressure as a result of a violation of aqueous humor. It happens open-angle and closed-angle (anatomical concepts).
Angle – closure glaucoma can be acute, subacute and chronic. An acute attack of glaucoma is an emergency, often resulting in loss of vision.
Acute angle-closure glaucoma:
- periodic deterioration of visual acuity,
- rainbow circles when looking at the light
- dull pain in the eyeball,
Manifestations occur during prolonged visual load (reading, watching TV) and disappear after sleeping or resting.
A typical attack of acute glaucoma is a sudden, throbbing pain in the eyeball, combined with a sharp deterioration in vision. Often accompanied by nausea and vomiting.
Chronic form of angle-closure glaucoma:
- pain in the eyeball
- gradual deterioration of vision.
Open – angle glaucoma:
- any manifestations are often absent up to the development of irreversible changes,
- gradual deterioration of visual acuity
- mild headaches
- the appearance of rainbow rings when looking at the light.
In acute glaucoma:
- glycerin 1-2 g / kg orally, pre-mixed with an equal volume of water (cooled and preferably with lemon juice)
- or acetazolamide 500 mg orally
- and instillation into the eye of a 1% solution of brinzolamide and a 0.25% solution of timolol 2 p. / day ., 1–4% of a solution of pilocarpine every 15 minutes. within 1–2 hours.
After normalization of intraocular pressure, acetazolamide is prescribed 250 mg every 6–12 hours and instilled into the eye, for example,
- pilocarpine 1–2% solution 3–6 p. / day .,
- every 12 hours – timolol 0.5% solution or betaxolol 0.5% solution,
- Clonidine 0.125–0.25% solution every 8 hours.
In subacute and chronic forms of glaucoma:
- Pilocarpine 1–2% solution 3–6 p. / day , sometimes in combination with timolol 0.25– 0.5% solution 1–2 p. / day .
- peripheral laser iridotomy .
For the purpose of prophylaxis, an operation is performed on the second eye.