Glaucoma

Symptoms of glaucoma

Treatment

Glaucoma is an eye disease characterized by an increase in intraocular pressure as a result of a violation of aqueous humor. It happens open-angle and closed-angle (anatomical concepts).

Angle – closure glaucoma can be acute, subacute and chronic. An acute attack of glaucoma is an emergency, often resulting in loss of vision.

Symptoms of glaucoma

Acute angle-closure glaucoma:

  • periodic deterioration of visual acuity,
  • rainbow circles when looking at the light
  • dull pain in the eyeball,
  • headache.

Manifestations occur during prolonged visual load (reading, watching TV) and disappear after sleeping or resting.

A typical attack of acute glaucoma is a sudden, throbbing pain in the eyeball, combined with a sharp deterioration in vision. Often accompanied by nausea and vomiting.

Chronic form of angle-closure glaucoma:

  • pain in the eyeball
  • gradual deterioration of vision.

Open – angle glaucoma:

  • any manifestations are often absent up to the development of irreversible changes,
  • gradual deterioration of visual acuity
  • mild headaches
  • the appearance of rainbow rings when looking at the light.

Treatment

In acute glaucoma:

  • glycerin 1-2 g / kg orally, pre-mixed with an equal volume of water (cooled and preferably with lemon juice)
  • or acetazolamide 500 mg orally
  • and instillation into the eye of a 1% solution of brinzolamide and a 0.25% solution of timolol 2 p. / day ., 1–4% of a solution of pilocarpine every 15 minutes. within 1–2 hours.

After normalization of intraocular pressure, acetazolamide is prescribed 250 mg every 6–12 hours and instilled into the eye, for example,

  • pilocarpine 1–2% solution 3–6 p. / day .,
  • every 12 hours – timolol 0.5% solution or betaxolol 0.5% solution,
  • Clonidine 0.125–0.25% solution every 8 hours.

In subacute and chronic forms of glaucoma:

  • Pilocarpine 1–2% solution 3–6 p. / day , sometimes in combination with timolol 0.25– 0.5% solution 1–2 p. / day .

Surgery:

  • peripheral laser iridotomy .

For the purpose of prophylaxis, an operation is performed on the second eye.

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